Chronic inflammation 1&2 Flashcards Preview

Principles of disease JK > Chronic inflammation 1&2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chronic inflammation 1&2 Deck (31):
1

What is the majority of the cell population?

Lymphocytes
Macrophages
Plasma cells

2

What does chronic inflammation feature?

Loss of function or necrosis

3

How can chronic inflammation arise?

Follow on from acute inflammation if there is a large amount of damage or can be primary

4

Healing and repair includes

Granulation tissue
Scarring and fibrosis

5

Granulation tissue

Patches tissue defects and replaces dead tissue
Contracts and pulls together

6

Succession of events of organisation

Capillaries => inflammatory mass => access of plasma protein => Macrophage from blood and tissue => fibroblast lay down collagen => Collagen replaces exudate

7

Products of granulation tissue

Fibrous tissue - scar
Fibrosis - less movement
Can lead to chronic inflammation

8

Primary chronic inflammation

- Autoimmune disease eg rheumatoid arthritis
- Material resistant to digestion eg mycobacteria
- Exogenous substance - suture, hip replacement
- Endogenous substance - in wrong place eg keratin

9

What is a plasma cell?

Undifferentiated B cell ==> antibody
b cell presents antigen to Macrophage

10

What do T cells produce?

Cytokines to attract macrophages
Interferons that are antiviral
Kill cells

11

NK cells

Destroy antigens and cells

12

What do macrophages do? (2)

Remove debris
Antigen presentation

13

What is a macrophage?

A motile phagocyte
Takes over from neutrophils
Contains enzyme eg lysosome and can produce interferon

14

Fibroblasts are...

Motile
Make collagen
Metabolically active

15

Granulomatous infection

Granuloma in tissues and cause serious infection
Aggregation if macrophage in epithelium cells and look like epithelium

16

What is a granuloma?

Lump of macrophages

17

Granulomas

May contain giant cells, neutrophil, eosinophil
Type 4 hypersensitivity
Surrounded by lymphocytes

18

Giant cell

Fusion of macrophage to from larger cells
Large cytoplasm and multiple nuclei

19

Langhans giant cells

TB - peripheral rim of nuclei with a large eosinophilic nuclei

20

Infectious granulomatous infection

TB - mycobacterium TB
Leprosy - mycobacterium leprae
Syphilis - Treponema pallidum

21

Non infective granulomas

Rheumatoid arthritis
Sarcoidosis
Crohns disease

22

Wound healing

Repair by granulation tissue formation
Phase of acute inflammation and angiogenesis
Fibrosis and scar formation

23

Surgical scar

Primary intention
Small and linear with a small amount of granulation tissue

24

Larger defect scar

Secondary intention
Lots of granulation tissue and contract and scar

25

What are some examples that favour wound healing

Nutrition
Metabolic stability
Cleanliness
Apposition of edges

26

What are some examples that impair wound healing

Poorly nourished
Inhibition of angiogenesis
Abnormal CHO metabolism

27

Fracture healing

Situation in bone ossification
Callus around broken bone and soft tissue

28

Granulation tissue in fracture healing

Osteoblast and fibroblast

29

VEGF

Released by hypoxic cells and stimulates proliferation

30

Angiogenesis and organisation in thrombosis

Limits thrombus propagation

31

Angiogenesis in malignant tumour

Tumour grows