Circulatory and Respiratory Systems (8.11) – Part 1 and Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Circulatory and Respiratory Systems (8.11) – Part 1 and Part 2 Deck (39):
1

Responsible for connecting all the cells of the whole organism. It distributes nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and functions in waste retrieval.

Circulatory System

2

Evolution of the Circulatory system:
It started with a _________ Cavity. (As seen in Cnidarians and Platyhelminthes.)

Gastrovascular

3

Blood bathes the organs by moving through sinuses (spaces).
The system has a tubular heart with directional arteries to distribute blood.
Seen in Arthropods and some Mollusks.

Open Circulatory System

4

Blood is confined to traveling through blood vessels under pressure.
A muscular chambered heart mostly (Not in annelids.)(2,3,4 chambers)
Found in Annelids, some mollusks, vertebrates

Closed Circulatory System

5

These chambers receive blood coming into the heart.
They are composed of a thin layer muscle tissue.

Atriums

6

These chambers pump blood away from the heart.
They are composed of a thick layer of muscle tissue.

Ventricles

7

Mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians have a ______ _____ system.
One loop for getting oxygen; one loop for delivering oxygen.

Double loop

8

_____ vascular system (Echinodermata) (Madreporite, Tube feet, canals are the parts.)

Water

9

These are large blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart.

Arteries

10

These are medium sized vessels carrying blood away from the heart.

Arterioles

11

These are the smallest blood vessels where nutrients and oxygen diffuse out.

Capillaries

12

These are small blood vessels that collect waste materials from the tissues.

Venules

13

These are large blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

Veins

14

The blood mainly is in the digestive organs.

During Digestion of Food

15

The blood is mostly in the muscles and skin; not the digestive organs.

During Exercise

16

These are red blood cells-RBC’s (“erythro” means “red”; “cyte” means “cell”)

Erythrocytes

17

______ uses iron (Fe) to hold oxygen. (“heme” means “iron”)
Each RBC can hold 1 billion oxygen molecules.

Hemoglobin

18

These are white blood cells – WBC’s (“leuko” means “white”)
They protect our bodies against invading organisms or materials.

Leukocytes

19

These are pieces of RBC’s used for making clots.

Platelets

20

These are for gas exchange with the environment.

Respiratory Systems

21

(Oxygen in and Carbon dioxide out.)
Oxygen is need for cellular respiration; Carbon dioxide is the waste product of cellular respiration.

Gas Exchange

22

This term refers to where the oxygen molecules are located. It is either water or air.

Respiratory Medium

23

This term refers to where the gas exchange occurs.

Respiratory Surface

24

Diffusion must occur across a ______ surface. Gases do not diffuse across dry surfaces.

wet

25

A large surface area is needed to get large amounts of gas exchange to occur. ______ in the surface increases surface area within a small space.

Folds

26

Gills, Lungs, Tracheal tubes, Skin, membranes are all ________ surfaces.

respiratory

27

Works with the circulatory system ( That is why they are always located together.)

Respiratory system

28

Mammalian Respiratory system is located in the ________ Cavity (Chest)

Thoracic

29

These cavities warm, moisten, and clean the air using mucous and hairs.

Nostrils and Naval Cavity

30

This is the back of mouth

Pharynx

31

This is the top of trachea

Larynx

32

This muscular flap covers the trachea by bending over the opening.

Epiglottis

33

These vibrate to make sounds. (You can only talk while
exhaling because the moving air is causing the vibration by “catching” the wind, much like a parachute catches air.)

True and False Vocal Cords

34

A.K.A. windpipe) It is protected by C- shaped cartilage rods on the front side.

Trachea

35

(There is one for each lung.) Cartilage keeps them open for air to travel through.

Bronchi

36

These carry air into each lobe of each lung.

Bronchioles

37

This is an inflammation of the air ways.

Bronchitis

38

This condition is having trouble breathing due to airways swelling shut.

Asthma

39

means “air sacs” This is the site of gas exchange by diffusion. (If it is a wet surface.) They are only one cell layer thick which allows for rapid diffusion of gases. They are surrounded by capillary beds. (This makes it 2 cell layers thick. It leads to rapid diffusion in and out.) WBCs that keep these areas clean. (Smoking? Kills the WBCs.)

Alveoli