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Flashcards in clinical 2 Deck (52)
1

what is chorea

involuntary, rapid, jerky movements

2

what causes chorea

damage to basal ganglia, especially caudate nucleus

3

what 4 features are associated with motor neurone disease

- fasciculation
- absence of sensory signs/symptoms
- lower motor neuron signs in arms and upper motor neuron signs in legs
- wasting of the small hand muscles/tibialis anterior is common

4

what will electromyography show in someone with motor neurone disease

a reduced number of action potentials with an increased amplitude

5

what will nerve conduction studies in motor neurone disease show?

will be normal - but can rule out neuropathy

6

raised intracranial pressure of uncertain cause is called

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

7

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension can lead to what if untreated

papilloedema leading to blindness

8

who gets Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

overweight woman and on certain medications

9

what medications are associated with Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

tetracycline antibiotics
isotretinoin
contraceptives
steroids
levothyroxine
lithium
cimetidine

10

how do you treat idiopathic intracranial hypertension

repeated therapeutic lumbar punctures, where the pressure is lowered by draining off CSF until symptoms settle and with acetazolamide (diuretic)

11

ABCD2, A is

age >= 60 yrs (1 point)

12

ABCD2, B is

Blood pressure >= 140/90 mmHg (1 point)

13

ABCD2, C is

Clinical features:
- Unilateral weakness (2 points)
- Speech disturbance, no weakness (1 point)

14

ABCD2, D is

Duration of symptoms
- > 60 minutes (2 points)
- 10-59 minutes (1 point)
- diabetes (1 point)

15

ABCD2 score does what

asses risk of stroke in days following TIA

16

max possible ABCD2 score

7

17

for ABCD2, what score means you're at risk

4+

18

if someone scores 4+ on ABCD2 what is treatment

- aspirin (300 mg daily) started immediately
- specialist assessment and investigation within 24 hours of onset of symptoms
- measures for secondary prevention introduced as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed

19

what is phonophobia

hypersensitivity to sound

20

in what condition is phonophobia very common

migrane

21

initial symptoms for lewy body dementia apposed to pakinsons

lewy body = dementia symptoms first, along with hallucinations
parkinsons = movement problems first

22

characteristic histological feature of lewy body dementia

alpha-synuclein cytoplasmic inclusions (Lewy bodies) in the substantia nigra, paralimbic and neocortical areas

23

what drugs should be avoided in those with lewy body dementia and why

Neuroleptics - they develop irreversible parkinsonism

24

how do you diagnose lewy body dementia

single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

25

tricep reflex is what nerve and what root

radial nerve C7

26

what must epileptic woman take if trying to conceive/pregnant while on sodium valproate

5mg folic acid daily

27

why do epileptic woman take folic acid during pregnancy if on sodium valproate

to avoid neural tube defects

28

phenytoin (anti epileptic): associated with what in babies?

cleft palate

29

what do you give pregnant woman who are on phenytol in last month and why

B12 to prevent clotting disorders in baby

30

what anti epileptic should child baring age woman NOT take

sodium valproate

31

parkinsons drug strongly associated with pulmonary fibrosis is

cabergoline

32

parkinsons is firstly treated with which group of drugs

dopamine receptor agonist

33

examples of dopamine receptor agonists (4)

Bromocriptine, ropinirole, cabergoline, apomorphine

34

what type of injury usually causes extradural haematoma

- acceleration to deceleration trauma
- blow to side of head

35

what is risk factors for subdural haematoma

old age, alcoholism and anticoagulation

36

what head injury do you get 'lucid interval'

extradural haematoma

37

most common location of epidural haematoma and why

temporal region where skull fractures cause a rupture of the middle meningeal artery

38

extradural haematoma located where

between dura mater and skull

39

which haematoma has half moon appearance

extradural

40

partial horners syndrome associated with which type of headache

cluster

41

type of headache associated with family history

cluster

42

main autonomic symptoms associated with cluster headache

rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion and lacrimation

43

treatment of acute cluster headache

100% oxygen, subcutaneous or a nasal triptan

44

prophylaxis of cluster headaches

verapamil, prednisolone

45

impingement of nerve root C7 will cause numbness where

middle finger and palm

46

landmark for C5/C6

thumb and index finger
** Make a 6 with your left hand by touching the tip of the thumb & index finger together - C6 **

47

landmark for T4

nipples - T4 for the teat pour

48

landmark for T10

umbilicus - BellybuT-TEN

49

landmark for L1

inguinal ligament - L for ligament, 1 for 1nguinal

50

landmark for L4

knee caps - Down on aLL fours - L4

51

landmark for L5

L5 = Largest of the 5 toes

52

landmark for S1

Lateral foot, small toe
S1 = the smallest one