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1

2 main categories of seizures

generalised and partial

2

general seizures include (4)

grand mal (tonic-clonic)
petit mal (absence seizures)
myoclonic: brief, rapid muscle jerks
partial seizures progressing to generalised seizures

3

types of partial seizure

simple (no disturbance of consciousness or awareness)
complex (consciousness is disturbed)
temporal lobe → aura, déjà vu, jamais vu; motor → Jacksonian

4

type of tremor improved by alcohol

essential tremor

5

which tremor has a strong family history

essential tremor (autosomal dominant)

6

in what position is essential tremor worse

outstretched arms

7

which features would suggest a tremor is caused by thyrotoxicosis

hyperthyroid signs: Weight loss, tachycardia, feeling hot

8

3 common signs of cerebellar disease

intention tremur
past pointing
nystagmus

9

in what gender is parkinsons more common

males 2:1

10

what is pathophysiology of parkinsons

degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra

11

classic triad of features in parkinsons

tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity

12

type of rigidity in parkinsons

leap pipe
cog wheel: due to superimposed tremor

13

what are triptans

specific 5-HT1 agonists used in the acute treatment of migraine

14

contraindications of triptans

history of/risk of: ischaemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease

15

what drug do you give in a prolonged seizure

rectal benzodiazapine (diazepam) usually 10mg in >12yrs, can give up to 30mg

16

site of stroke: Contralateral hemiparesis and sensory loss, lower extremity > upper

Anterior cerebral artery

17

site of stroke: Contralateral hemiparesis and sensory loss, upper extremity > lower
Contralateral homonymous hemianopia
Aphasia

Middle cerebral artery

18

site of stroke: Contralateral homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing
Visual agnosia

Posterior cerebral artery

19

site of stroke: Ipsilateral CN III palsy
Contralateral weakness

Weber's syndrome (branches of the posterior cerebral artery that supply the midbrain)

20

site of stroke: Ipsilateral: facial pain and temperature loss
Contralateral: limb/torso pain and temperature loss
Ataxia, nystagmus

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (lateral medullary syndrome, Wallenberg syndrome)

21

site of stroke: Symptoms are similar to Wallenberg's, but:
Ipsilateral: facial paralysis and deafness

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (lateral pontine syndrome)

22

site of stroke: Amaurosis fugax

retinal artery

23

site of stroke: 'Locked-in' syndrome

Basilar artery

24

in ABCD2 score which 2 factors give highest risk of having a stroke

- unilateral weakness
- TIA >60 mins ** 2 points each **

25

what is cataplexy

describes the sudden and transient loss of muscular tone caused by strong emotion (e.g. laughter, being frightened)

26

cataplexy is strongly associated with which other condition

narcolepsy

27

high stepping gait suggests what

foot drop from neuropathy

28

if high stepping gait (indicting foot drop) is unilateral, where is the most likely site of lesion

a common peroneal nerve

29

if foot drop is bilateral this indicates what type of neuropathy

peripheral

30

in regards to facial palsy, how do UMN and LMN features differ

upper motor neurone lesion spares upper face (forehead) where lower affects all of face