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Flashcards in clinical 6 Deck (100)
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1

uses iodine as contrast

CT

2

better for bone

CT

3

Better for soft tissue

MRI

4

T1 hyper intense MRI shows up what

fat and 4 'M's':

- Methemoglobin (subacute hematoma)
- Mineral deposition (Ca, Mg, Mn, etc.)
- Melanin (melanoma)
- “Mush” (highly proteinaceous fluid)

5

different types of T1

hyperintense (bright)
hyopintense (dark)

6

contrast in T1 hyperintense

gadolinium

7

T1 hypo intense will show what

air
cortical bone
high flow: arterial 'flow voids'

8

T2 hyperintense will show up what

water (so more water than tissue)

9

what pathology willa T2 hyper intense show up

oedema, demyelination, fluid collection, some tumours

10

where do you get muscle weakness in duchesses

pelvic and shoulder girdle

11

milder form of duchennes

beckers

12

gene affected in duchennes

dystrophin (deficiency)

13

what has happened to dystrophin gene in duchennes

large scale deletion

14

what will bloods show in duchenes

raise creatine kinase

15

2 signs of duchenes

towers sign
toe walking

16

what will be seen on biopsy of huntinftons brain (macroscopic)

caudate atrophy

17

CAG encodes for what

glutamate

18

chromosome involved in alzheimers that

21

19

plaques in alzheimers had up of what

amyloid beta proteins

20

what other genetic condition associated with alzhimers and why

down syndrome coz gene that encodes for Amyloid precursor protein in on chromo 21 r

21

other than APP mutation, what other genes and chromosomes can cause alzheimers

presenilin 1 (chromo 14)
presenilin 2 (chromos 1)

22

2 chromosomes invloed in alzheimers

1, 14, 21

23

what are triptans

5-HT (1B/1D) agonists

24

what do triptans do

- constrict arteries
- inhibit release of substance P and pro inflamm neuropeptides
- blocks transmission of trigeminal nerve to 2nd order neurones

25

triptans are used to treat

migraine, cluster headaches, subarchnoid heammorhages

26

dorsal column senses

vibration, fine touch and proprioception

27

what is 'dissociated sensory loss'

pattern of neurological damage caused by lesion to a single tract in spinal cord which involves loss of fine touch and proprioception but with out loss of pain and temperature (or vice versa)

28

loss of pain and temperature indicates lesion where

lateral spinothlamic tract

29

in lateral spinothalamic lesions why will you lose sensation of pain and temperature at level of spine but not sensory loss to dermatome

tract of lissauer transmits one or two levels up from lesion, thus bypassing lesion

30

cord hemisection is called

brown-sequard syndrome