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Flashcards in pastest 3 Deck (114)
1

thiamine is what vitamin

B1

2

which cranial nerve has the longest course

6th abducens

3

cranial nerve in bells palsy

lower motor of 7th (facial)

4

treatment for cluster headache

sumatriptan and high flow oxygen

5

drug given to reduce ICP

mannitol (diuretic)

6

which cranial nerve has the longest course

6th abducens

7

cranial nerve in bells palsy

lower motor of 7th (facial)

8

treatment for cluster headache

sumatriptan and high flow oxygen

9

winged scapula: nerve and muscle

long thoracic nerve, serratus anterior

10

weakness in elblow flexion (nerve?)

musculocutaneous nerve

11

epidural haematomma crosses suture line?

no (dura mater there to it)

12

sentinel headache

precedes sub arachnid haemorrhage

13

lens shape on CT

extra dural

14

what will be seen in perineal nerve damage

dorsiflexion weakness/foot drop
weakness in eversion
loss of sensation to dorm of foot and medial aspect of leg
weak extensor hallicus longus

15

loss of knee reflex, what nerve

femoral

16

femoral nerve lesion will show what

loss of knee reflex
weakness in hip flexors and knee extensors

17

weakness in hip flexors and knee extensors - nerve

femoral

18

sciatic nerve made up of what roots

L4 - S2

19

loss of ankle reflex - nerve?

sciatic nerve

20

weakness in muscles below knee - nerve?

sciatic nerve

21

loss of sensation over foot and posterolateral lower leg

sciatic

22

shoulder shrugging, what nerve

spinal accessory

23

spinal accessory arise from

C1-C5

24

pathway of spinal accessory

arise from C1-C5, ascend through foramen magnum, descent through jugular, crosses 1/3 down sternocleidomastoid (which it innervates)along the posterior triangle , then onto trapezius (which it innervates)

25

innervates skin over deltoid

axillary nerve

26

myasthenia gravis age of onset

~ 20

27

treatment for myasthenia gravis

acetylecholine esterase inhibitors

28

who get duchesses

only boys (x-linked)

29

myasthenia gravis is Ab to what

Ach receptors

30

which tracts crosses in spinal cord

spinalothalamic (pain and temp) **quick to cross**

31

hyperreflexia: UMN or LMN

UMN

32

positive babinski sign: UMN or LMN

UMN

33

sensorimotor to lower limb is via which 3 nerves

femoral, sciatic, obturator

34

femoral and obturator arise from same level, this is where

L2-L4

35

right sided extradural haematomma leading to herniation of temporal uncus can present with what neurological signs

weakness in both upper and lower LEFT limbs, dilated pupil in RIGHT eye

36

nerves for afferent and efferent of corneal reflex

afferent: ophthalmic division of trigeminal (sensory)
efferent: facial (blink - motor)

37

puffing of cheeks tests what nerve

facial nerve

38

clenching jaw is what nerve

mandibular division of trigeminal

39

what nerve passes along cavernous sinus in brain

ophthalmic division of trigeminal

40

pathology affecting cavernous sinus will show what sign

absent corneal reflex

41

upper limbs wlil be spared as long as a spinal injury is below what level

T1

42

all lower limb nerve arise from where

above the 5th the sacral segment

43

indian ink staining of CSF

Cryptoccosus meningiti

44

viral meningitis profile

opening pressure: normal
WBC: lymphocytes predominant
protein: increased
glucose: normal

45

bacterial meningitis profile

opening pressure: Increased
WBC: neutrophil predominant
protein: increased
glucose: decreased

46

cryptococcus meningite profile

opening pressure: increased
WBC: lymphocytes predominant
protein: increased
glucose: normal/decreased

47

14-3-3 protein in CSF

prion disease

48

EEG shows triphasic spikes

prion disease

49

histology in prion disease will show what changes in brain tissue

instead of alpha helical protein get beta sheets

50

numbness of lateral thigh, what nerve

lateral femoral cutaneous nerve

51

numbness of medial thigh, medial leg and medial ankle

femoral nerve

52

weakness in hip flexion and knee extension

femoral nerve

53

weakness of knee flexion

sciatic

54

weakness in adduction and internal rotation of hip

obturator

55

what will be seen in brain tissue of someone with alzheimers

amyloid plaques and tau proteins neurofiblary tangles

56

what typer of dementia will have frontal lobe features

picks disease

57

complete loss of vision in one eye

optic nerve of ipsilateral eye

58

bitemporal heminopai

optic chasm

59

right homonymous hemianopia

left optic tracts/radiation

60

left homonymous hemianopia

right optic tract/radiation

61

3 categories of glasgow comma score

eyes response (4)
verbal response (5)
motor response (6)

62

GCS: eye response if out of how many?

4

63

GCS: verbal response if out of how many?

5

64

GCS: motor response if out of how many?

6

65

what drugs cane given to stop a fit and by what route

lorazepam - IV
diazepam - rectal

66

drug you can give in several consecutive fits/status epileptics that have already had diazepam/lorazipam

IV phenytoin

67

other pathology associated with myasthenia gravis

thymus disease

68

first line treatment for bacterial meningitis

cephalosporin (cefotaxime)

69

what drugs do you give for alcohol withdrawal

chlordiazepoxide and thiamine

70

polymorph leucocytosis =

neutrophils

71

CSF in TB meningitis is have what 2 particular features

very high protein and very low glucose

72

viral meningotis protein level will be

slightly elevated

73

non hospital treatment of suspected bacterial meningitis

IM/IV benzylpenicillin

74

hospital treatment of bacterial meningitis of unknown organism

IV cefotaxime

75

hospital treatment of bacterial meningitis of unknown organism > 55 yrs

Iv cefotaxime + ampicillin

76

why do you also give ampicillin to > 55 yrs in bacterial meningitis where organism is not know

incase of listeria **also if immunocompromised**n

77

viral meningitis also called

aseptic meningitis

78

most common cause of viral meningitis

enteroviruses (echoviruses)

79

treatment for viral encephalitis

aciclovir

80

appearance of CSF in bacterial meningitis

turbid/cloudy

81

appearance of CSF in viral meningitis

clear

82

appearance of CSF in TB meningitis

fibrin web

83

glucose in bacterial

84

glucose in TB

85

glucose in viral

> 50% of plasma

86

how do you differentiate TB from viral

TB will have

87

vessels involved in sub dural

bridging veins

88

what might indicate encephalitis rather than meningitis

confusion, seizures, increased signal in temporal lobes on MRI

89

what type of meningitis do you see nerve palsy

TB

90

Oligoclonal bands =

MS (Ab's that indicate inflammation of CNS)

91

gait seen in normal pressure hydrocephalus

broad based, small stepping, difficulty initiating

92

homonymous hemianopia occurs in infarct in what part of brain

occipital

93

expressive dysphagia = what area

broca's

94

receptive dysphagia = what are

wernickes

95

fluent nonsensual speech

receptive (wernickes) dysphagia

96

injury to elbow or shaft of humorous usually damages what nerve

radial

97

fingers innervated by median nerve

thumb, index and middle

98

shoulder dislocation usually results in damage to what nerve

axillary

99

what tract carries fine touch

dorsal column

100

dorsal column carries what sensations

fine touch
2 point discrimination
vibration
proprioception

101

anterior spinothalamic tract senses what

crude touch

102

lateral spinothalamic senses what

pain and temp

103

pain and temp

lateral spinothalamic

104

crude touch

anterior spinothalamic tract senses what

105

vibration

dorsal column

106

what can cause neuritis

MS
connective tissue disease
diabetes
lead poisoning

107

headache + stiff neck but no fever

subarachnoid haemorrhage

108

increased pain on bending forward indicates what

raised ICP

109

dilated ventricles + increased opening CSF pressure

benign intracranial hypertension

110

treatment for benign intracranial hypertension

stop COCP if on it
lose weight
acetazolamide or dexamethasone
repeated therapeutic lumbar puncture
ventriculo-peritoneal shunt

111

drugs you can give in benign intracranial hypertension

acetazolamide (diuretic) or dexamethasone (steroid)

112

what gives you a headache in the morning

raised ICP (SOL, benign intracranial pressure, chronic bleeds)

113

which haematomma DOES cross sutures

sub dural (extradural does not)

114

which haematomma DOES cross the midline

extradural (sub dural does not)