Clinical Features Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Features Exam 1 Deck (37):
1

Most frequently injured nerve with blows to the face

Infraorbital nerve/ maxillary division/ trigeminal N

2

Bell’s palsy

Facial nerve paralysis

Impingement of CNVII

3

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Sudden attacks of severe pain occurring in area of sensory distribution of trigeminal N

MC - maxillary division
LC- ophthalmic division

4

Torticollis

Pathological contraction of SCM

Head tilted toward affected side and face tilted away from affected side

5

Types of Torticollis

Congenital- fibrous tissue tumor

Muscular- birth injury

Spasmodic - abnormal tonicity in adults

6

Prominent external jugular vein

In CHF and obstruction of SVC

Exceptions: opera singers and bagpipe players

7

Clinical significance of fascia layers

May be channel for infection

8

Potential for lung collapse with neck injury

Cervical pleura and apex of lung pass through superior thoracic aperature immediately posterior to SCM

Broken 1st rib can cause atelectasis (lung collapse)

9

Endemic goiter

Dietary deficiency of iodine

Hormone inactive

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

10

Exothalmic goiter

Autoimmune

Hormone active

Hyperthyroidism or Graves’ disease

11

Factors contributing to difficult thyroid surgery

Vascularity
Presence of parathyroid glands
Presence of recurrent laryngeal nerve

12

Unilateral damage to recurrent laryngeal nerve

Respiratory distress and partial aphonia

13

Bilateral damage to recurrent laryngeal nerve

Complete aphonia and possible suffocation

14

Causes of damage to recurrent laryngeal nerve

Trauma during thyroid surgery

Goiter or thyroid tumor

Lung tumor

Left sided aortic aneurysms

15

Deviated septum

Nasal septum not on median plane

16

Causes of deviated septum

Congenital
Birth injury
Postnatal trauma

17

Epistaxis

Nosebleed

18

Forms of epistaxis

Mild- rupture of small branches in or near vestibule, due to minor trauma or low humidity

Severe- spurting of arterial blood due to rupture of sphenopalatine artery at major anastomoses from major trauma

19

Paranasal sinuses

Sinusitis

20

Nasopharynx

Acute pharyngitis

21

Lacrimal apparatus and conjunctiva

Conjunctivitis via nasolacrimal duct

22

Middle ear

Otitis media via pharyngotympanic tube

23

Anterior cranial fossa

Meningitis/ brain abscess via cribriform plate

24

Mastoid air cells

Mastoiditis

25

Damage to vagus nerve

Uvula deviates to unaffected side

26

Ankyloglossia

Tongue tied

27

Ankyloglossia due to

Frenulum of tongue short S-I and long A-P, extending near apex

28

Clinical importance of genioglossus

Pulls tongue forward and prevents tongue from falling backwards and blocking airway

Important during general anesthesia and seizure disorders

29

Tooth ache vs trigeminal neuralgia

Tooth ache= 1 tooth and static

Trigeminal neuralgia= multiple teeth and dynamic

30

Clinical important pharyngeal tonsils

May cause difficulty breathing if enlarged

2 MC removed

31

Clinical significance of retropharyngeal space

Hemorrhage from cervical trauma or abscess from pharyngeal infection may cause posterior wall of pharynx to balloon forward, leading to suffocation

*look on radiology

32

Dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing

33

Anosmia

Loss of olfaction

34

Tympanic N / CN IX

Otitis media

35

Pharyngeal br / CN IX

Acute pharyngitis

36

Tonsillar br / CN IX

Tonsillitis

37

Auricular br / CN X

Otitis externa / swimmers ear