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Flashcards in Clinical ID Deck (42):
1

Prions

Composed of modified proteins that cause transmissable disesases

2

Viruses

Obligate intracellular organisms that are dependent on host cell metabolism for replication

3

What type of pathogen is capable of long term latency in the host?

Viruses

4

Bacteriophages/Plasmids/Transposons

Mobile genetic elements that encode bacterial virulence factors.

Bacteriophages only infect bacteria.

5

Chlamydiae

Can cause GU infections, conjunctivitis, respiratory infections & STDs

6

Rickettsiae

Transmitted by insect vectors (lice, ticks, mites) and can cause Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Q Fever, ehrlichiosis & scrub typhus

7

Mycoplasmas

Tiniest free-living organism known and can cause atypical pneumonia & nongonococcal urethritis

8

What are the conidia of the fungi?

Fruiting bodies off of the hyphae

9

Protozoa

Parasitic, single-celled organisms with motility, pliable plasma membranes and complex cytoplasmic organelles

10

Helminths

Parasitic worms that are highly differentiated multicellular organisms

11

What are the 3 types of helminths?

-Roundworms
-Flatworms
-Flukes

12

Example of roundworm

Nematode

13

Example of a flatworm

Tapeworm

14

Example of a fluke

Trematodes

15

What are the main barriers to infection?

Skin and mucosa along with secretions such as lysozyme and stomach acid.

16

What are the mechanisms of bacteria induced cell injury?

-Cell Death
-Toxins
-Secondary injury due to the immune response

17

What is bacterial endotoxin?

Toxin that is a part of the LPS in Gram (-) bacteria and is on Lipid A

18

What is bacterial exotoxin?

Toxins that are released by the bacteria to interfere with cellular metabolism to kill surrounding cells and increase the nutrients available to them

19

What are examples of microbial pathogens that exhibit significant antigenic variation?

Rhinovirus
Influenza
Giardia Lamblia
N. gonorrhoea
Plasmodium falciparum

20

Giardia lamblia would most appropriately be classified as:
1. Bacteria
2. Fungus
3. Protozoa
4. Helminth
5. Virus

3. Protozoa

21

Which of the following are considered to be part of the human host barriers to infection?
1. Intact skin
2. Lysozme in tears
3. Acid in stomach
4. Commensal flora of mucous membranes
5. All of the above

5. All of the above

22

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS): structural component of outer cell wall in gram negative bacteria that induces host cytokine release to cause fever, activate macrophages & B cells is know as:
1. Exotoxin
2. Endotoxin
3. Lipoteichoic acids
4. Integrins
5. Peptidoglycan

2. Endotoxin

23

Which of the following microbial pathogens exhibits significant antigenic variation?
1. Bacillus anthracis
2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
3. Shigella dysenteriae
4. Streptococcus pyogenes (GroupAStrep)
5. Vibrio cholera

2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae

24

Suppurative (Polymorphonuclear) Inflammation

- Caused by pyogenic bacteria
- Characterized by increased vascular permeability and leukocytic infiltration by neutrophils

25

What can cause suppurative inflammation?

Pneumococcal pneumonia

26

Mononuclear and Granulomatous Inflammation

Diffuse, predominantly mononuclear interstitial infiltrates form in response to pathogens

27

What can cause granulomatous inflammation?

Syphilis
Tuberculosis

28

Cytopathic-Cytoproliferative Inflammation

Reactions characteristic of virus-mediated damage to individual host cells in the absence of host inflammatory responses

29

What can cause cytopathic-cytoproliferative inflammation?

Herpes
Measles

30

Necrotizing Inflammation

Rapid and severe tissue damage with predominant cell death in the absence of inflammatory infiltrates

31

What can cause necrotizing inflammation?

Caused by uncontrolled viral infections, secreted bacterial toxins or cytolysis of host cells in protozoa infections (eg. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A streptococcus)

32

Chronic Inflammation and Scarring

Chronic inflammation can lead to either complete healing or to extensive scarring due to constant damage from inflammation

33

What can cause chronic inflammation?

Schistosoma haematobium - shistosoma eggs

34

Poliovirus

Virus

35

Staphylococcus epidermis

Bacteria

36

Candida albicans

Fungi

37

Sporothrix shenckii

Fungi

38

Histoplasma capsulatum

Fungi

39

Giardia lamblia

Protozoa

40

Trypanosoma gambiense

Protozoa

41

Enterobius vermicularis

Helminthes

42

Trichinella spiralis

Helminthes

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