Seizures and Epilepsy Flashcards Preview

► Med - Pathology > Seizures and Epilepsy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Seizures and Epilepsy Deck (30):
1

Seizure

Clinical event - Paroxysmal episodes of brain dysfunction manifested by stereotyped alteration in behavior

2

Epilepsy

Syndrome that includes recurrent seizures

3

What receptors propagate seizure activity?

NMDA (glutamate) receptors

4

What receptors inhibit seizure activity?

GABA receptors

5

What are the populations most at risk for seizures?

- Young children and infants
- Elderly

6

Partial Seizure

Seizure has a focal onset in the brain

7

Simple Partial

Seizure with no alteration of consciousness

8

Complex Partial

Focal seizure with impaired consciousness

9

Partial with Generalized Tonic-Clonic

Focal onset with bilateral convulsive seizures

10

Generalized Seizure

The entire brain seizes at once

11

What is the most common partial seizure?

Temporal Lobe Seizure

12

What are the symptoms of temporal lobe seizure?

- Epigastric aura - rising sensation
- Staring and unresponsiveness with some possible contralateral limb posturing

13

What are the characteristics of frontal lobe seizures?

- Complex movements
- Often occurs at night
- Versive movement of eyes away from a seizure location

14

Todd's Paralysis

Weakness for up to 24 hours after a seizure

15

Parietal Lobe Seizure

Uncommon but can have numbness in lips/fingers/toes with some visual hallucinations

16

Occipital Lobe Seizures

Darkness or sparks of light with red as the most common color seen

17

What is a young child who stares off into space at school often a classical example of?

Absence Seizures

18

What is seen on EEG of absense seizures?

3 Hz spike and wave pattern

19

What are absence seizures treated with?

Ethosuximide

20

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

Myoclonus: shock-like or
lightening-like contraction of
a group of muscles that occurs in the morning in teenagers

21

What is juvenile myoclonic epilepsy treated with?

Valproic Acid

22

Atonic Seizures

Sudden loss of tone that can cause head drop or all involved muscles with a brief loss of consciousness

23

Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

"Classic" seizure AKA grand mal with contractions leading to extension and arching and alternating contraction and relaxation with possible ictal cry and sometimes loss of bladder control

24

A 38 year old male with
history of a left parietal
cortex oligodendroglioma
presents for episodic right
arm tingling and occasional
hand stiffening. He is aware
of the symptoms when they
occur and does not lose
consciousness when they
occur.

Simple Partial - Left Motor Cortex

25

A 36 year old male presents
for an episodic “burning
smell” and epigastric rising
sensation. His colleagues
report that he “stares off” at
his desk and has difficulty
speaking for several
minutes.

Complex Partial - Left Temporal Lobe

26

A 22 year old female is
brought to the ER by her
roommate. The roommate
noted the patient’s eyes turn
to the left side, followed by
complete body shaking. On
examination, she has blood
on her teeth and her tongue
has been lacerated.

Complex Partial - Right Frontal Lobes (eye fields)

27

Pseudoseizures

Seizures of non-epileptic origin and is psychiatric in nature

28

What is a typical sign of pseudoseizures?

Head turning

29

Status Epilepticus

– Continuous seizure activity (variably defined as more than 5 minutes, with long-term consequences at more than 30 minutes)
– Greater than 2 seizures in a row and patient does not regain consciousness in between

30

What is the treatment for status epilepticus?

- Lorazepam OR Phenytoin

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