Neuropathy and Myopathy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuropathy and Myopathy Deck (31):
1

Mononeuropathy

A single large, "named" nerve is affected, usually by compression or trauma

2

Polyneuropathy

AKA peripheral neuropathy and is a disorder of multiple large or small nerves

3

What is the most common presentation of polyneuropathy?

Stocking and glove sensory deficits

4

Paresthesia

Spontaneous tingling with a pins and needles sensation

5

Dysesthesia

Unpleasant sensation from a non-noxious stimulus

6

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Results from the compression of the median nerve in the wrist

7

What is the most common mononeuropathy?

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

8

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Affects people of all ages and occurs most often after an infection - immune system will target myelin and cause an ascending areflexic paralysis

9

What infection is Guillain-Barre Syndrome associated with?

Campylobacter jejuni

10

What is a lab finding with Guillain-Barre Syndrome?

Elevated protein found in the CSF

11

What is one of the most frequent causes of polyneuropathy?

Diabetes mellitus

12

Myopathy

Pathology of the muscle directly which can be seen with proximal weakness or fatigue alongside normal sensation and late loss of reflexes after significant atrophy

13

What are some possible causes of myopathy?

- Viral infection
- Statins
- Cushing's

14

Polymyositis

Inflammation and weakness of multiple muscles may occur from viral infections or drug reactions

15

What is the most common cause of polymyositis in the US?

An autoimmune cause is most common in the USA:
– proximal weakness developing over weeks to months
– a rash around the eyes or fingers may occur

16

Dermatomyositis

Rash around the knuckles and periorbital areas from polymyositis

17

Muscular dystrophy

Hereditary myopathies of variable progression and severity

18

What is the inheritance of Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy?

X-linked

19

What is the mutation of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy?

Absence of dystrophin, a critical structural protein in muscle and involves respiratory and cardiac muscles as well

20

What are some clinical signs of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy?

- Calf pseudohypertrophy
- Proximal weakness since childhood

21

What is Gower's maneuver?

It is seen in Duchenne's dystrophy where young children push up their trunk to get to a standing position

22

Myotonic Dystrophy Type I

Autosomal dominant. Excessive trinucleotide repeats on Ch19 which produces abnormal protein kinase in muscle fibers.

23

Myotonia

Impaired relaxation of muscles after volitional contraction

24

Motor Neuron Disease

Disorders, occasionally hereditary, where degeneration of upper (UMN) or lower (LMN) motor neurons, or both, occurs with varying severity and rate of progression

25

Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Group of disorders that involve just the anterior horn cells - most are hereditary with LMN signs of weakness, atrophy, areflexia, fasciculations

26

Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease

Infantile onset of anterior horn cell degeneration that is a terminal condition due to
rapid development of diffuse weakness, with no current curative treatment

27

What is the most common motor neuron disease?

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

28

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Progressive degeneration of UMN and LMN

29

What are the symptoms of ALS?

Frequently begins with regional weakness and atrophy of a limb (e.g., shoulder), which spreads and becomes bilateral; or initial weakness of swallowing or speech

30

What mutation is seen in familial ALS?

Defective Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

31

What is the only drug for ALS (not curative)?

Riluzole (glutamate antagonist) prolongs survival by months (glutamate may “overly excite” motor neurons)

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