Introduction to Renal Disease Flashcards Preview

► Med - Pathology > Introduction to Renal Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Renal Disease Deck (24):
1

What is the equation for GFR?

GFR = (UCr x UVol)/PCr

2

What are the problems with the GFR equation?

- Can only be used reliably in patients with stable renal function
- May be less accurate in certain populations
• High/normal/near normal renal function
• Children
• Certain ethnic groups
• Pregnant women
• Unusual muscle mass, body habitus, or weight

3

What is the use of fractional Na excretion in the assessment of renal disease?

It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption. Therefore the urinary and plasma concentrations of sodium must be compared to get an accurate picture of renal clearance.

4

Why is fractional urea excretion better to use than fractional Na excretion?

FE of urea is useful no matter what the range of values is while FE of Na is not helpful between 1-2%

5

What is normal urine output?

1500 mL/24 hours

6

Azotemia

Elevation in nitrogen containing compounds in the plasma and usually indicates renal problems

7

Uremia

Clinical syndrome that can accompany kidney failure, usually when advanced and/or severe due to an elevated level of urea.

8

Oliguria

Little urine output 500mL/day

9

Polyuria

High urine output 3000mL/day

10

Anuria

No urine output

11

AKI

Acute Kidney Injury

12

CKD

Chronic Kidney Disease

13

ESRD

End Stage Renal Disease

14

How is AKI defined?

An abrupt (within 48 hours) reduction in kidney function, defined as:
• ↑ in serum creatinine of > 0.3mg/dL OR
• Percentage ↑ in serum creatinine of 50% OR
• Oliguria of 6 hours

15

How is CKD defined?

• Progressive decline in GFR over time
• Duration at least three months
• With or without albuminuria

16

Proteinuria

Protein in urine
• “Nephrosis”: > 3 – 3.5gm/24 hours

17

Hematuria

Blood in the urine
Can be gross or microscopic (≥ 2 RBC/hpf)

18

Nephrolithiasis

Kidney stones - most common are Ca2+ stones

19

What are the characteristics of nephrotic syndrome?

• > 3 – 3.5gm protein/24 hours
• Hypoalbuminemia
• Peripheral edema
• Hyperlipidemia
• Thrombophilia
• Bland urinary sediment
• Noninflammatory renal biopsy

20

What are the characteristics of nephritic syndrome?

• Inflammatory renal biopsy
• Active urinary sediment
• Hematuria
• Dysmorphic RBC’s
• RBC casts
• Variable proteinuria
• Azotemia, oliguria
• Mild/moderate HTN
• Other systemic features

21

What is the ratio of ICW to ECW of the body fluid?

ICW is 2/3
ECW is 1/3

22

What are crystalloid solutions?

They disperse across the ECW - examples are saline and lactated Ringer's solution

23

What are colloid solutions?

They remain within the plasma volume - examples are packed RBCs and albumin

24

What is the function of Erythropoietin?

It regulates HGB/HCT concentration

Decks in ► Med - Pathology Class (203):