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Flashcards in CNS Deck (66):
1

ALS attacks what?
MS attacks what?

ALS - motor neurons
MS - myelin

2

Where does reciprocal inhibition occur?

At the spinal cord level.

3

What are directional terms unique to the CNS and what do they mean?

Rostral - towards the nose
Caudal - towards the back

4

Spinal cord:
Functions:
- _______ and ______ innervation
- Provides ___-way conduction pathway between body and brain
- major centre for ______

Location:
- Runs through the ______ _____
- Extends from the _______ ______ to the level of vertebra ___ or ___

Motor and sensory innervation
2 way
Reflexes

Vertebral canal
foramen magnum
L1 or L2

5

What is the conus medullaris?

Where the spinal cord comes to an end

6

What is the filum terminale?
What does it prevent?

tiny, part of pia matter that anchors the spinal cord caudally or inferiorly
- anchors it to the sacrum/coccyx to prevent anterior/superior displacement

7

What are cervical/lumbar enlargements?

Nerves that supply upper/lower limbs

8

What is the cauda equina?

When the spinal cord reaches the conus medullaris, lots of nerves splay out in the form of a horses tail

9

What does the gray matter of the spinal cord consist of?

Neuron cell bodies, neuroglia, unmyelinated axons.

10

How is the grey matter of the spinal cord divided?

Divided according to somatic and visceral regions.

SS
VS
VM
SM

11

Describe the white matter of the spinal cord.
What does it consist of?
What does it allow?

Composed of myleniated axons.
Allows communication between spinal cord and brain

12

Incoming sensory information comes in _______ to the spinal cord, outgoing motor information leaves ________.

dorsally
ventrally

13

What are the different things that protect the spinal cord?

CSF
Meninges
Vertebrae

14

What are the three meningeal layers?

Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater

15

Describe the dura mater.
What tissue type does it have?

Strongest, outermost, leathery layer surrounding spinal cord
Composed of dense fibrous CT.

16

Where is the arachnoid mater located?

Deep to the dura mater.

17

Describe the pia mater?
Where does it extend to?
What are denticulate ligaments?

Innermost layer
Delicate layer of CT
Extends to the coccyx
Denticulate ligaments - lateral extensions of the pia mater

18

Where is the CSF located in the meninges?

Subarachnoid space

19

What does the epidural space contain?

Fat

20

What do the dendiculate ligaments do?

Anchor the spinal cord medially and laterally.

21

What are the four regions of the brain?

Cerebrum
Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus)
Brain stem (pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain)
Cerebellum

22

What are modifications to the brain to increase surface area?

Ridges and convolutions

23

Organization of the brain:
- Centrally located ____ matter
- Externally located _____ matter
- Additional layer of _____ matter external to the ____ matter
- _____ - outer layer of gray matter
-- Formed from neuronal ____ _____
-- Located in _______ and _________

gray
white
gray
white
cortex
cell bodies
cerebrum
cerebellum

24

Cerebral cortex:
- Home of our _______ mind
- Composed of _____ matter
- approx. ___% of brain's mass

conscious
grey
40

25

Cerebrum:
- Divided into ________, accounts for __% of brain mass
-- _____ - deep grooves, which separate major regions of the brain
--- _______ ______ - separates cerebrum and cerebellum
--- ________ ______ separates cerebral hemispheres
- _______ - shallow groove
- ______- raised area of the brain
- Deeper sulci divide the cerebrum into ______
- ______ are named for the skull bones overlying them. What are they?
______ lies deep in the lateral sulcus.

- _______ sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobes

hemispheres, 83%
fissures
transverse fissure
longitudinal fissure

sulcus/sulci
gyri/gyrus

lobes
lobes
- parietal, temporal, frontal, occipital

insula
central

26

What does the longitudinal fissure separate?
What does the transverse fissure separate?

Longitudinal - hemispheres
transverse - cerebrum and cerebellum

27

What is the central sulucs bordered by?
What cortices are located there?

Two major sulci:
Precentral gyrus - primary motor cortex
Postcentral gyrus - primary somatosensory cortex

28

Where is the primary somatosensory cortex located?
What is it involved in?

Postcentral gyrus
Involved in spatial discrimination
Involved in conscious awareness of general somatic senses (touch, pressure, pain, etc.)

29

Where are the special somatic senses located?
What are they?

Primary visual cortex - occipital
Primary auditory cortex - temporal
- Vestibular (eqb) cortex - insula

30

Where is the primary motor cortex located?
What is it involved in?

Precentral gyrus
Involved with controlling somatic motor functions
- (voluntary movements of skeletal muscle)

31

Homunculus:
Sensory:
- amount of ________ cortex devoted to a body region is related to the sensitivity of that region (i.e. the _____ of ______ ______)
- most sensitive parts = what?

Motor:
- amount of ______ cortex devoted to a body region is related to the ability to what?
- most skilled and delicate parts are the what?

Sensory homunculus:
somatosensory
number of sensory receptors
- lips and fingertips

Motor homunculus:
- motor
- ability to perform precise, skilled movement = number of motor neurons
- face and hand

32

Why can chimps and apes perform large feats of strength but we cannot?

We have a neural limit to how many muscles we can use at once.

33

Where does the somatosensory association cortex lie?

Posterior to primary somatosensory cortex

34

Somatosensory association cortex:
- _______ different sensory inputs into a comprehensive understanding of what is being felt:
- _____ and ______

- Draws upon stored ________ of past sensory experiences
Provide an example of this.

Integrates - touch and pressure

memories

ex: feel keys and know what they are without seeing them

35

Premotor cortex:
Location?
Function:
- ______ and ______ complex movements to relay to what?
Receives processed ______ information
- these include _____, _____ and general ______ sensory
- controls voluntary actions depending on ______ feedback about ______ relations.

Anterior to primary motor cortex or precentral gyrus
- Plans and coordinates - relay to primary motor cortex
receives processed sensory info
- including visual, auditory and general somatic sensory

sensory feedback - spatial relations

36

The two hemispheres of the brain are _________.
Damage to the left side causes what?
Damage to the right side at the same area causes what?

Contralateral

left - aphasia - inability to use/comprehend words

right - speech without emotional inflection

37

If you are left brain dominant, you are _____ handed.
What are characteristics of this?

What if you were right brain dominant?

left brain - right handed - analytical

right brain - left handed - creative

38

Why is it better to be dominant on one side of the brain?

Don't waste energy communicating with the other side - generally retarded if you do.

39

Diencephalon:
- Surrounded by the cerebral _______ and borders the _____ ______
Composed of _____ matter and three paired structures. These are?

hemispheres
third ventricle
gray
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

40

Thalamus
- __% of the diencephalon
- _____ impulses converge on the thalamus
- Acts as a _____ _____ for incoming sensory messages

- _____ part of the brain communicating with the cerebral cortex relays signals through the thalamus

80
sensory
relay station
every part

41

The hypothalamus is the main ______ control center of the body
- ______ glands protrude inferiorly from here
Give two functions.

visceral
pituitary

Control of ANS
Regulation of body temperature

42

Epithalamus
- Forms part of the "roof" of the _____ ventricle
- includes the _____ gland
-- secretes the hormone _______
--- this gland is under the influence of the _______
- _______ signals the body to prepare for sleep

third
pineal - melatonin - hypothalamus controlled - melatonin - sleep

43

How is melatonin secreted?

Light stops hitting the optic nerve, triggers melatonin release preparing us for sleep.

44

How does melatonin secretion get messed up?

Jet lag
blue light
up north with 6 months of light

45

Brainstem
- passageway between the ________ and ______ ______
Produces automatic behaviours responsible for _______
Comprised of what structures?

cerebrum - spinal cord
survival
medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain

46

What centres does the medulla oblongata contain?

cardiac, (vasomotor), respiratory

47

What does the pons coordinate?
What two brain structures does it bridge?

voluntary movement
cerebellum and brainstem

48

The midbrain relays information between what two CNS structures.
What reflexes does it integrate?
Which structures correspond to each?

cerebrum and spinal cord
visual, auditory
- visual - superior colliculi
- auditory - inferior colliculi

49

Cerebellum
What are the two main structures? What matter are they composed of?

Functions to ______ body movements and maintain _____.
Also involved in _____ memory (the best kind of memory :)

Cortex - gray matter
arbor vitae - internal white matter

Functions - smooth out body movements and help maintain posture

muscle memory

50

Why can't you tickle yourself?

cerebellum integrates commands from cerebrum and is thus aware of actual actions to yourself.

51

The brain is protected by what four components?

Skull
CSF
Meninges
BBB

52

Meninges Functions:
- Cover and protect the ____
- Enclose and protect the ______ vessels that supply the CNS
- contain the ____

CNS
blood
CSF

53

The dura matter is the ______ of the meninges.

It is composed of two layers:
- _______ layer - inner surface of skull bones
- ______ layer - external covering of the brain

strongest
periosteal
meningeal

54

Arachnoid mater
- Located where?
- Subarachnoid space contains what and is located where?
What are arachnoid villi?
- where do they project?
- what do they allow?

Below dura matter (deep to)
CSF and between pia and arachnoid

Arachnoid villi
- project through dura matter into sinuses
- allow CSF to pass into the dural blood sinuses

55

Pia mater
- Delicate ____, which is _____ vascularized
- Clings tightly to the surface of the _____
- Follows all the _______ of the brain (ex: gyri, sulci, fissues)

CT, highly vascularized
brain
convolutions

56

From the skin down, what are the layers of the brain?

skin
periosteum
spongy bone of skull
periosteal layer of dura matter
meningeal layer of dura mater
arachnoid
subaracnoid
pia

57

What are the different kinds of hematomas?

Epidural - dura matter rips away

Subdural - between dura and arachnoid

intercerebral hematoma

58

What is the danger with brain hematomas

Swelling of brain with no place to go, leads to death of brain tissue

59

Describe a concussion.

Hit head, brain slams against skull and recoils on the other side.
leads to bruising of brain

60

What is the major issue with whiplash?

Tendons and ligaments of neck and back are overstretched, effects last a while.

61

Why does punching a boy in the jaw make him get KO'd?

farther from the muscles that can brace

62

Ventricles of the brain:
- Expansions of the brain's ______ cavity
- lined with ______ cells
- __________ with each other and with the ______ _______ of the spinal cord

central
ependymal
continuous - central canal

63

CSF
- surrounds CNS in _______ space
Describe some fuctions.

subarachnoid

Nourishes CNS and removes wastes

64

Where is the CSF formed?
Where is that located and what is it composed of?

choroid plexuses in the brain ventricles
- located in all four ventricles
- composed of ependymal cells and capillaries

65

What does the CSF arise from?

arises from blood plasma through filtration from the capillaries and passes through the ependymal cells into the ventricles

66

What does the BBB prevent from getting in?
What can get in?

Impermeable capillaires that prevent blood-borne toxins from getting in.

Allows nutrients and oxygen in, as well as nicotine and alcohol.