Flashcards in Human Anatomy Lecture 1 - Before Class Deck (59):
What is anatomy?
The study of the structure of the body parts and their relationships to one another.
Historically, anatomy was studied through _______ but, the advent of _______ has advanced the field?
Modern imaging techniques
What is the hierarchy of structural organization?
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
What does the term "superior" refer to?
Towards the head
What does the term "inferior" refer to?
Away from the head
What do the terms "ventral/anterior" refer to?
At the front of the body
What do the terms "dorsal/posterior" refer to?
At the back of the body
What does the term "medial" mean?
Nearer the midline of the body.
What does the term "intermediate" mean?
Between two structures
What does the term "proximal" mean?
Nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk
What does the term "distal" refer to?
Farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk
What does the term "superficial" mean?
Toward or at the body surface.
What does the term "deep" refer to?
Away from the body surface, more internal
What does the term "ipsilateral" refer to?
On the same side of the body as another structure
What does the term "contralateral" refer to?
On the opposite side of the body as another structure.
What is a plane?
A plane, is an imaginary flat surface that passes through the body.
What is the anatomical position? Describe it.
Standardized position from which to describe directional terms.
The person is:
-Facing the observer
- Eyes facing forward
-Feet flat on the floor
-Arms at the sides
-Palms turned forward
What is a section?
One of two surfaces (pieces) that results when the body is cut by a plane passing through it.
What is a sagittal plane?
A plane that divides the body or an organ into left and right halves.
What is the midsaggital or median plane?
Produces equal halves (left and right)
What is a parasagittal plane?
Produces unequal left and right halves
What is the frontal/coronal plane?
Divides the body or an organ into front (anterior/ventral) and back (posterior/dorsal) portions.
What is a transverse plane?
Divides the body or organ into upper (superior) or lower (inferior) portions.
What is another name for a transverse plane?
Horizontal plane or cross-sectional plane
What cavities are located in the dorsal body cavity?
Cranial and vertebral cavity
What cavities are located in the ventral body cavity?
What is the cranial cavity?
Formed by cranial bones and contains the brain
What is the vertebral cavity?
Formed by the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord and the beginning of spinal nerves.
The dorsal and ventral cavities are internal body cavities that are _____ to the outside and provide protection to the ______ contained within them.
Where is the thoracic cavity located?
Above the diaphragm
Where is the abdominopelvic cavity located?
Below the diaphragm
What is the diaphgram?
Large, dome-shaped muscle used in respiration.
Organs within the ventral body cavity are referred to as what?
Visceral organs are covered with a ______ membrane.
The thoracic cavity is encircled by what?
Ribs, sternum, vertebral column and muscle.
What is the thoracic cavity subdivided into?
Two pleural cavities, each surrounding a lung.
Pericardial cavity, surrounding the heart.
What is the mediastinum?
Sits between the lungs and extends from the neck to the diaphgram and from the spinal cord to the sternum.
What does the mediastinum contain?
All thoracic organs except the lungs. These include the heart and great vessels, esophagus, trachea and thymus
What is the abdominopelvic cavity subdivided into?
Abdominal and pelvic cavities
What is the abdominopelvic cavity encircled by?
Abdominal wall, bones and muscles of pelvis
What does the abdominopelvic cavity contain?
Liver, stomach, spleen, galllbladder, intestines, urinary bladder and reproductive structures
What are serous membranes?
Thin membranes that line body cavities that are NOT open to the oustide.
Serous membranes are subdivided into what?
Parietal layer, lining the walls of cavities and;
Visceral layer, which covers the viscera within the cavities.
What are the membranes of the ventral body cavity?
Parietal serosa and visceral serosa. (Also serous fluid)
_____ _____ clings to the surface of the lungs.
_____ ____ lines chest wall.
_______ ________ covers the heart.
______ _______ lines pericardial sac.
What is the peritoneum?
Serous membrane of the abdominopelvic cavity
What does the visceral peritoneum do?
Covers the abdominal viscera
What does the parietal peritoneum do?
Lines the abdominal wall
What are the retroperitoneal organs?
Organs located between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall.
What are the retroperitoneal organs?
Kidney and adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum, ascending and descending colon
What does medical imaging allow and, what is it useful for?
Allows for visualization of structures without surgery and is useful for confirmation of diagnosis.
What is an X-ray and what is it best used for?
Electromagnetic waves of very short length. Best used for visualizing bones and tumours.
What is an advanced X-ray technique and, what does it do?
CT or CAT scan, computed axial tomography. Takes successive X-rays around a person's full circumference.
What is a pet scan? How does it work?
Positron emission tomography.
Detect regions of cellular activity by injecting radioactively labelled sugar/H20 molecules.
Identifies body's active cells which are indicative of increased blood supply.
As material decays, it produces gamma rays which are detected and visualized.
What is ultrasound?
High-frequency sound waves echo off the body's tissues and are used to visualize structures.