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Flashcards in Extra stuff from SOS Deck (19):
1

Describe scoliosis, kyphosis and lordosis.

Kyphosis - hunchback
Lordosis - Pregnant lady
Scoliosis - fucked

2

What is the only mobile bone of the skull?

Mandible

3

Sutures are immovable joints.
The _______ suture connects both parietal bones.
The ________ suture connects the frontal and parietal bones anteriorly.
The ______ suture connects the parietal bones to the occipital bone.
The _______ suture connects temporal to parietal.

Sagittal

Frontal

Lambdoid

Squamous

4

How many curvatures does a baby have? An Adult?
What are primary curves?
What are secondary curves.

A baby has two curvatures, looks like a C.
An adult has 4 main curvatures.
Primary curves are those retained from birth.
- Thoracic and sacrococcygeal
Secondary curves are those that develop after birth.
- Cervical, when child holds head up
- Lumbar - when child begins to walk

5

What is a slipped disk?

Nucleus pulposus projects through anulus fibrosus

6

What is a sprain?

Tear in the ligament

7

What is a strain?

Tearing of muscle (or tendon)

8

Blood cells are formed in the ___ _____ _____. Fat is stored in the ______ ______ _____.

Red bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow

9

Why is the anatomical position good for X-rays?

When thumbs are turned in, the radius and ulna are crossed.

10

What are the pros of X-ray?
What are the cons?

Pros:
-Good for viewing bones and dense tissues (tumours)
-Cheap
-Quick

Cons:
-Radiation
-2D

11

What are the pros and cons of CT scans?

Pros:
- 3D
- cheap
- quick
- good for viewing bones and dense tissues

Cons:
- higher radiation

12

What are the pros and cons of PET?

Pros:
- can view function
- good for finding tumours

Cons:
- radiation
- involves injections

13

What are the pros and cons of ultrasound?

Pros:
- Safe
- Quick
- cheap

Cons:
-poor quality images
- 2D
- obstructions block deeper view

14

What are the pros and cons of MRI?

Pros:
- very good contrast between soft tissues
- high quality images

Cons:
- very expensive
- very time consuming
- metal implants = no go

15

Describe the different degrees of burns.

1st - degree - only epidermis affected - ex: sunburn
2nd degree - epidermis and upper layer of dermis are affected
3rd degree - epidermis and dermis are consumed
4th degree - reaches underlying muscle and bone - require skin grafts

16

Compare and contrast bone and cartilage.

Similarities:
- both are connective tissues
- chondrocytes and osteocytes, cells responsible for the metabolism of the respective tissues, lie in lacunae
- both share a common embryonic origin
- both are made up of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix
- both function, in some way, in support, protection and movement

Differences:
- bones is highly vascular, cartilage is avascular
- Periosteum has nerve endings, cartilage does not
- bones have a solid ground substance, cartilage has a gel-like ground substance
- bone is stronger than cartilage

17

What are true ribs, which ones are they?
What are false ribs? Which ones are they?
What are floating ribs?
Which ones are they?

True ribs: The first seven ribs are attached directly to the sternum by costal cartilages.
False ribs: the next five ribs do not join the sternum directly but attach to the 7th rib by cartilage.
Floating ribs: 11th and 12th ribs are not attached to the sternum or to another rib. (no ventral attachment)

18

What is the nucleus pulposus?

gelatinous inner sphere of intervertebral disc.
Enables spine to absorb compressive stresses.

19

What is the anulus fibrosus?

Wraps around the nucleus pulposus.
Consists of an outer collar of ligaments and fibrocartilage
Functions to bind vertebrae together, resist tension on the spine and absorb compressive forces.