Human Anatomy - Bone Tissue (Basics) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Human Anatomy - Bone Tissue (Basics) Deck (46):
1

Bone tissue is ________ and ever-_____ throughout life.

Dynamic
changing

2

Bones are composed of many different ______ so each is considered an ______.

Tissues
Organ

3

Why are bones considered organs?

Made up of many different tissues thus, considered an organ.

4

What are the different tissues in bone?

Osseous (bone) tissue
Cartilage (connective)
Adipose (connective
Nerves (nervous)
Blood vessels (muscle, epithelium, connective)

5

What are the basic functions of bone?

Support
Movement
Protection
Mineral storage
Blood cell formation
Energy storage
(Energy metabolism)

6

Describe how bones provide support.

The skeleton provides a hard framework.

7

Describe how bone provides movement?

Serves as an attachment point for muscles.

8

Describe how bone affords protection.

Cranium protects the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, thoracic cage protects thoracic organs, pelvic girdle protects the reproductive structures.

9

What minerals are stored by bone (major)?

Calcium and phosphorus

10

What is the site of energy storage in bone?

Fat storage in yellow bone marrow

11

What are the different types of bones. Provide one example of each.

Long bone - humerus
Short bone - talus
- Sesamoid bone - patella
Flat bone - sternum
Irregular bone - vertebrae/scapula

12

The majority of the appendicular skeleton are _____ bones which have a ______ and distinct _____.

Long
Shaft
distinct ends

13

What are the different portions of a typical long bone?

Diaphysis
Epiphyses
Metaphysis (growth plate)/epiphyseal plate
Articular cartilage
Medullary cavity
Spongy bone
Compact bone
Endosteum
Periosteum

14

What is the diaphysis?

Shaft

15

What are the epiphyses

Ends

16

What is the metaphysis?

Also called the growth plate region. This eventually stops growing (18-21) and becomes the epiphyseal plate.

17

What is articular cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage that wraps around the ends of long bones in the epiphyses, distal or proximal.
Two sets of cartilage that make a soft joint when two bones come together.

18

What is the medullary cavity?

Middle part of the long bone.
Yellow bone marrow located here.

19

Where is red bone marrow located?

Epiphysis.

20

What is compact bone?

Dense outer layer of bone

21

What is spongy bone?

Internal network of bone.

22

Why are our bones hollow?

Compression and tension are highest at the ends, necessitating spongy bone in the epiphyses.
In the middle of the bone, these forces tend to cancel out.
So, to maximize the strength while minimizing weight, bones can support a medullary cavity in the middle, making them hollow.
(Max strength and minimum weight)

23

What is the endosteum?

Thin membrane lining the marrow cavity.

24

What is the periosteum?

Tough membrane covering bone but not the cartilage.

25

What are the two layers of the periosteum?

Fibrous layer
Osteogenic layer

26

What is the fibrous layer composed of?

Dense irregular connective tissue

27

What composes the osteogenic layer?

Blood cells and blood vessels that nourish or help with repairs.

28

What does the periosteum cover?

The complete exterior of the bone except where articular cartilage is located.

29

How is the periosteum connected to bone?

By collagen fibre bundles.

30

What do the collagen fibre bundles do for the periosteum?

Allows tendons and ligaments to attach to bone.
Prevents these from ripping off during contraction and tension.

31

Bone is heavily _______.

vascularized

32

Ligament connects _____ to ______.

Bone to Bone

33

Tendons connect ______ to ______.

Muscle to bone

34

Anatomy of the bone reflects _______.

Stresses

35

_______ and _______ are greatest at the external surface of bones.

Compression and tension

36

Flat bones, short bones and irregular bones contain _____ _____ but no ______ cavity.

Bone marrow
Marrow cavity

37

What is Diploë?

Internal spongy bone of flat bones

38

What are bone markings?

Superficial surfaces on bones that reflect the stresses imposed on them.
3 categories.

39

What are the three categories of bone markings?

Projections - for muscle attachment
Surfaces - that form joints
Depressions and openings

40

How did bones end up with specific markings?

Evolutionary due to switching to bipedal movement.
Depressions and openings are for nerves, blood vessels, tendons, ligaments to penetrate.

41

Bone, is a connective tissue which has ______ spaced cells separated by _______.

widely
matrix

42

35% of bone is ______ components. 65% is _______ (more than one word)

organic components
inorganic mineral salts

43

What is the organic component of bone made up of?

Cells, fibres (collagen), organic substances.
Abundance of collagen.

44

What is the primary component of the inorganic mineral salts of bone?

Calcium phosphate

45

What does the inorganic mineral salt component of bone provide?

Resistance to compression.

46

What are the four types of bone cells in bone tissue?

(Osteo)progenitor cells
Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts