Flashcards in Human Anatomy - Bone Tissue (Basics) Deck (46):
Bone tissue is ________ and ever-_____ throughout life.
Bones are composed of many different ______ so each is considered an ______.
Why are bones considered organs?
Made up of many different tissues thus, considered an organ.
What are the different tissues in bone?
Osseous (bone) tissue
Blood vessels (muscle, epithelium, connective)
What are the basic functions of bone?
Blood cell formation
Describe how bones provide support.
The skeleton provides a hard framework.
Describe how bone provides movement?
Serves as an attachment point for muscles.
Describe how bone affords protection.
Cranium protects the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, thoracic cage protects thoracic organs, pelvic girdle protects the reproductive structures.
What minerals are stored by bone (major)?
Calcium and phosphorus
What is the site of energy storage in bone?
Fat storage in yellow bone marrow
What are the different types of bones. Provide one example of each.
Long bone - humerus
Short bone - talus
- Sesamoid bone - patella
Flat bone - sternum
Irregular bone - vertebrae/scapula
The majority of the appendicular skeleton are _____ bones which have a ______ and distinct _____.
What are the different portions of a typical long bone?
Metaphysis (growth plate)/epiphyseal plate
What is the diaphysis?
What are the epiphyses
What is the metaphysis?
Also called the growth plate region. This eventually stops growing (18-21) and becomes the epiphyseal plate.
What is articular cartilage?
Hyaline cartilage that wraps around the ends of long bones in the epiphyses, distal or proximal.
Two sets of cartilage that make a soft joint when two bones come together.
What is the medullary cavity?
Middle part of the long bone.
Yellow bone marrow located here.
Where is red bone marrow located?
What is compact bone?
Dense outer layer of bone
What is spongy bone?
Internal network of bone.
Why are our bones hollow?
Compression and tension are highest at the ends, necessitating spongy bone in the epiphyses.
In the middle of the bone, these forces tend to cancel out.
So, to maximize the strength while minimizing weight, bones can support a medullary cavity in the middle, making them hollow.
(Max strength and minimum weight)
What is the endosteum?
Thin membrane lining the marrow cavity.
What is the periosteum?
Tough membrane covering bone but not the cartilage.
What are the two layers of the periosteum?
What is the fibrous layer composed of?
Dense irregular connective tissue
What composes the osteogenic layer?
Blood cells and blood vessels that nourish or help with repairs.
What does the periosteum cover?
The complete exterior of the bone except where articular cartilage is located.
How is the periosteum connected to bone?
By collagen fibre bundles.
What do the collagen fibre bundles do for the periosteum?
Allows tendons and ligaments to attach to bone.
Prevents these from ripping off during contraction and tension.
Bone is heavily _______.
Ligament connects _____ to ______.
Bone to Bone
Tendons connect ______ to ______.
Muscle to bone
Anatomy of the bone reflects _______.
_______ and _______ are greatest at the external surface of bones.
Compression and tension
Flat bones, short bones and irregular bones contain _____ _____ but no ______ cavity.
What is Diploë?
Internal spongy bone of flat bones
What are bone markings?
Superficial surfaces on bones that reflect the stresses imposed on them.
What are the three categories of bone markings?
Projections - for muscle attachment
Surfaces - that form joints
Depressions and openings
How did bones end up with specific markings?
Evolutionary due to switching to bipedal movement.
Depressions and openings are for nerves, blood vessels, tendons, ligaments to penetrate.
Bone, is a connective tissue which has ______ spaced cells separated by _______.
35% of bone is ______ components. 65% is _______ (more than one word)
inorganic mineral salts
What is the organic component of bone made up of?
Cells, fibres (collagen), organic substances.
Abundance of collagen.
What is the primary component of the inorganic mineral salts of bone?
What does the inorganic mineral salt component of bone provide?
Resistance to compression.