Digestive system - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Digestive system - Part 2 Deck (60):
1

What are the absorptive cells of the small intestine?

Enterocytes

2

What do enteroendocrine cells do?

Secrete hormones

3

Describe intestinal crypts/glands.

Epithelial cells secrete intestinal juices
Cells regenerate here

4

What are the different cells of the intestinal wall?

Absorptive cells - enterocytes
Goblet cells
Enteroendocrine cells
Intestinal crypts/glands

5

Enterocytes are what tissue type?

Simple columnar epithelial cells

6

In each villus, there are _______, ______, and ______ vessels

arteries, veins and lymph vessels

7

There are lots of mitochondria in the small intestine. Why?

absorption is a very energy-dependent process

8

What are the main functions of the large intestine?

Absorb water and electrolytes

9

There is also _________ digestion in the large intestine.

bacterial

10

Mass __________ movements move feces toward the rectum.

peristaltic

11

Describe why people get gas when lactose intolerant.

Lactase is activated in the duodenum, deficient in these people.
Lactose not absorbed through the SI like normal.
In this case, digested by bacteria which produce gas.

12

What is the teniae coli?

thickening of longitudinal muscularis

13

What are haustra?

Puckering created by teniae coli; "sacs"

14

What are Epiploic appendages?

Fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum

15

What is the cecum?

(Blind pouch)
Beginning of large intestine

16

What is the vermiform appendix?
What does it contain/do?

Contains lymphoid tissue which neutralizes pathogens.

17

What is the colon divided into?

Ascending, descending, transverse

18

Rectum.
What does it descend into?
What is well-developed in it?

Descends along the inferior half of the sacrum.
Well-developed longitudinal layer to generate strong contractions for defecation.

19

What is the anal canal?
What tissue type is here?

Last subdivision of the large intestine.
Stratified squamous epithelium

20

What comes off the cecum?

Appendix

21

The rectum has a well-developed _________ _________.

longitudinal muscularis

22

________ valve controls undigestible residue from the ileum.

Ileocecal

23

Describe how the ileocecal valve works.

As the residue is leached into the LI, the cecum fills up and pulls on the ascending colon, closing off this valve, peristalsis moves feces towards anal canal.
Prevents it from going back to ileum

24

Where is the right colic flexure?
What is located there?

Ascending colon
Liver there

25

What is on the left colic flexure?

spleen

26

What is the danger with the appendix bursting.

Bacteria and shit leak into the body cavity, peritoneal cavity, bacteria carried by bloodstream causing sepsis.

27

Lots of water absorbed means ________, lots of water in the LI means _________.

constipation
diarrhea

28

Microscopic anatomy of the large intestine:
______ are absent
Contains numerous ______ cells
Intestinal crypts are lined with _______ (tissue type) and have absorptive cells called _________
The epithelium changes at the anal canal, becoming _____ _______.

Villi
goblet
simple columnar
colonocytes
stratified squamous

29

The liver is the largest _____ in the body.
It produces ______ - digestive function
It performs many metabolic function:
- Processing _____
- Stores _______
- Detoxifies ______ and ______
Located just inferior to the ______ on the _____ side.
Humans have ___ lobes
The hepatic portal system is located on the _______ side.

gland
bile
fats
vitamins
poisons and drugs
diaphragm
4
posterior

30

What are the functional cells of the liver?

Hepatocytes

31

The portal triad of the liver is composed of what?

Bile duct tributary
Branch of hepatic portal vein
Branch of hepatic artery

32

What are kupffer cells?

Located in the liver,
destroy bacteria

33

The rough ER of the liver manufactures what?
The smooth ER of the liver produces what? What other function does the smooth ER do?
Peroxisomes of the liver detoxify ______.
Glycosomes of the liver store _______.
The liver has a great capacity for _________.
_________ provide energy for all of the functions.

Rough ER - blood proteins
Smooth ER - produce bile and detoxifies poisons
Peroxisomes - detoxify alcohol
Glycosomes store sugar
Great capacity for regeneration
Mitochondria provide energy

34

What is cirrhosis of the liver?

Liver is shrunken down

35

What colour is the liver? Why?

Red, highly vascularized

36

At each corner of a lobule is a group of three vessels. These are?

Portal arteriole, portal veinule, bile duct

37

What do the portal arterioles do?

Carry oxygen and nutrients to tissue

38

Where to hepatic veinules branch off of?

Branches off hepatic portal vein

39

What does the hepatic portal system do?

Takes nutrients from digestive organs and shuttles them to the liver for processing.

40

What are bile canaliculi?

Allow bile to be made and leached out

41

What is the capillary bed in the liver?

Sinusoids

42

The lobule is drained by the _____ _____ which drains to the _______ _____ then to the ____ ____ _____ which unloads blood into the RA?

central vein
hepatic vein
IVC

43

Final venous drainage of the hepatic portal system is the _______ vein.

central

44

All central veins converge onto _______ veins.

hepatic

45

Where is the first capillary bed of the hepatic portal system located?

Digestive organs

46

Describe the hepatic portal vein.

Brings deoxygenated nutrient rich blood from stomach, spleen and intestines

47

Describe the path of blood through the hepatic portal system starting at the hepatic artery and portal vein.

1 - Oxygenated blood from the hepatic artery
1 - Nutrient rich, deoxygenated blood from hepatic portal vein

2 - Liver sinusoids

3 - Central vein

4 - Hepatic vein

5 - IVC

6 - RA

48

Describe the action of the gallbladder.

Stores and concentrates bile.
Expels bile into duodenum.

49

What does bile do?

Emulsifies fats/cholesterol

50

Describe gallstones.
How are they caused.
How can they cause pain.
How are they treated?

Too much fat and too little bile salts, leading to crystallization in the gallbladder.
Gallstones can plug cystic ducts and cause pain when the gallbladder contracts.
Treated via drugs to dissolve stones or vapourizing them with a laser, or removal of the gallbladder.

51

What does a fatty chyme signal?

Feedsback to cause release of bile.

52

What is a special structure in the mucosa of the gallbladder?
What does it do?

ruggae - allow for expansion to receive bile

53

The cystic duct of the gallbladder meets up with what?

common hepatic duct

54

The pancreas has two functions. These are?

Exocrine
Endocrine

55

What are acinar cells?

Make, store and secrete pancreatic enzymes

56

Where are pancreatic enzymes active?

duodenum

57

What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?

Produces insulin and glucagon - helps regulate blood sugar

58

Acinar cells make ______ granules, allow secretion of ________ enzymes.

zymogen
digestive

59

Where does the head of the pancreas lie?

In the C-shaped curve of the duodenum

60

The main pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct to release its contents into the duodenum at the ___________ _________

hepatopancreatic ampulla