Flashcards in Cognitive Development Throughout The Lifespan Deck (43)
Thinking is defined as…
The manipulation of mental representations
A basic element of thought is called a…
Processing information to reach a conclusion. It includes evaluating and generating arguments to reach that conclusion
Inductive reasoning involves what?
Reasoning from specific to the general. For example, drying conclusions about all members of the category or concept based on only some of the members is inductive reasoning to.
Deductive reasoning to is what?
Reasoning from the general to the specific.
Logical reasoning involves what?
Using mental procedures that yield valid conclusions
What is problem-solving?
It is the mental activity used when we want to reach a certain goal that is not readily available. Problem-solving includes understanding the problem; planning a solution; carrying out the solution; and evaluating the results
Piaget believed cognitive development proceeded through what four stages?
1) sensorimotor intelligence: which lasts from birth to approximately 18 months of age
2) pre-operations: which lasts from 2 to 7 years of age
3) concrete operations: which covers the years 7 to 12
4) formal operations: which extends from 12 years on
What did Piaget refer ti the meaning of adaptation?
Children construct cognitive schema to organize their experiences
Piaget's stage theory involve a state of what and what?
Disequilibrium and equilibrium
Lev Vygotsky argued that children interact not only with objects in their environment but with people in a sociocultural context
This was against Piaget's explanation of cognitive development
Guided participation, according to Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory explains…
How older adults transmit the values and beliefs of the culture two children
Zone of proximal development describes…
Children's problem-solving ability with and without the aid of an older guide.
Teachers and parents service scaffolds or guides for children working on a problem-solving task.
Information processing theorists use the computer as a metaphor for the human mind, which is viewed as a what?
Information processing machine
Memory is information storage and involves the processes of what?
Registration, encoding, storage, and retrieval
Working memory is also known as?
Primary memory or short-term memory
Long-term memory is also known as what?
Retrieval can be either what or what?
Recall or recognition
Remembering when the queue for retrieval is the information to be remembered. Selecting the correct response to a multiple-choice question is an example of recognition
What is recall?
Recall is a much more difficult retrieval process, involves remembering after being given a less helpful clue.
Answering the question, "what did you eat for breakfast?" Is an example of the recall process.
According to Piaget, The final achievement of the sensorimotor stage are…
Symbolic representation: the ability to use one thing to stand for another.
Deferred imitation: modeling someone else's behavior sometime after observing the model. This requires the ability to create a mental representation of behavior and later retrieval and use that representation
The understanding that the quantity of liquid, or number, or volume does not change unless you add or take some away
The ability to organize items into groups based on shared characteristics or features
The ability to rank order objects on a dimension like height or length
The ability to represent exemplars of categories in superordinate and subordinate levels
The inability to take the perspective of another person
Preoperational children do not reason logically about cause-and-effect; what Piaget call this?
Preoperational children engage in animistic thinking. Define animistic thinking
Projecting human abilities and traits onto inanimate objects
Pre-occupational children lack reversibility
The ability to mentally rewind a thought