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Flashcards in Social Development Throughout The Lifespan Deck (30)
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Social development refers to…

The development of behaviors and thoughts the children engages in when he or she interacts with others


Social cognition

Reasoning about social situations and social relationships

Influences social interactions and social behaviors


Developmental psychologists have identified one of the key concepts that underlies social cognition. This concept is called

Theory of mind


Define theory of mind

The understanding that people have mental states and that the content of these mental states guides their behavior.

Actions are guided by beliefs, emotions, and goals


Joint attention

When a child and caregiver simultaneously direct their attention to the same object


Delay of gratification is what?

The ability to exert self-control and wait for an anticipated reward or goal or put off a desired activity for a later time


Gender typing

The process of socializing children about what roles are appropriate for males and females in the society


Social learning theory

Proposes that children learn gender roles because they are rewarded for appropriate behavior and punished for inappropriate gender role behaviors.

Children also watch and imitate the behavior of others


Cognitive theory

Kohlberg argue that children learn about gender the same way that they acquire other cognitive concepts

He also propose that preschool children lack of gender constancy


Psychoanalytic theory

Freud's theory proposes that children establish their gender role identity as a result of identification with their same-sex parent during the phallic stage


Kohlber's theory of moral development

This model was developed based on an individuals responses to difficult moral questions called moral dilemmas

A theory attempt to explain how children develop a sense of right and wrong



The close emotional relationship between an infant and his or her or caretakers



Critical period for development


Harry Harlow conducted a seminal study with monkeys to study the formation of attachment. In this study Harlow concluded what?

That the warmth and comfort given by the cloth mother was necessary condition for the attachment relationship even though the infants were being fed by the wiremesh mother


Secure attachment

Children use parent as secure base from which they explore the new environment. They become upset when their mother leaves the room but are glad to see her and go to her when she returns


Insecure attachment: anxious ambivalent

Children tend not to use the parent as a secure base and may often playing or refuse to leave their mother. They become very upset when she leaves and may often if you're angry or become more upset when she returns


Insecure attachment: avoidant

Children seek little contact with her mother and her not concerned when she leaves. Usually avoid interaction when the parent returns


Insecure attachment: disorganized-disoriented

Children alternatively approach and avoid conflict with their mother. There appeared confused about whether to seek or avoid her. Often appears and abused children


Rejected children are at risk for what?

Dropping out of school, having delinquent or criminal behavior, meeting mental health services



A small collection of close friends who spend a substantial amount of time together


A crowd

A collection of several cliques and typically is mixed sex


Interpersonal attraction refers to…

Factors that contribute to a relationship being formed


Robert Sternberg has proposed a triangular theory of love that consist of what three components?

Intimacy: encompassing feelings of closeness and connectedness in a relationship

Passion: the physical and sexual attraction in a relationship

Decision and commitment: the initial cognition that one love someone and the longer term feelings of commitment to maintain the love


Fatuous love is based on what?

Passion and commitment only and is often short-lived


Hostile aggression

Intentionally inflicting physical or psychological harm on others


Instrumental aggression

Using aggressive behavior to achieve a goal, but is not intended to harm


Relational aggression

A form of hostile aggression that is aimed at damaging other people's social relationships



The selfless concern for the welfare of others that leads to helping behavior



Term used for whatever qualities or characteristics an infant has who is at risk but overcomes those risks.

Resilient children tend to have above average intelligence, our sociable, and have an easy temperament.


True or false

Resilient children have the unconditional love of at least one person in their life