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Flashcards in Research Strategies And Methodology Deck (25)
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Scientific method consists of what five characteristics?

1) defining a research problem

2) proposing a hypothesis and making predictions

3) designing and conducting a research study

4) analyzing the data

5) communicating the results and building theories of behavior


What is a sample?

A sample is a subset of the population selected to participate in a study.


What is a random sample?

It is a sample in which every member of the population being studied that has an equal chance of being picked for inclusion in the study.


What is a biased sample?

A biased sample occurs when every member of the population does not have an equal chance of being chosen.


Independent variable

The variable that is manipulated


Dependent variable

The variable which is measured after manipulation


Experimental group

The group that is exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable


Field experiment

A study that was conducted in the participants natural setting rather than a laboratory.


What is correlational research?

Correlational research involves measuring two or more variables in order to determine if they are related.


Positive correlation

Positive correlation occurs if the value of one variable increases in value as the other also increases in value.


Negative correlation

Occurs when there is an inverse relationship between the variables measured. As the value of one increases the value of the other decreases.


Correlation coefficient

A number that represents the strength of the relationship between the variables measured.


What research methods are used to obtain accurate records of behavior without manipulating or controlling any variables?

Descriptive or observational research


Interobserver reliability

The amount of agreement between two or more observers who simultaneously observe the same event.


What is a descriptive research method that is an in-depth study of a single subject. It can include interviews, observations, and test results?

Case study


List the types of Developmental research methods

Cross-sectional, longitudinal, sequential research designs


Cross-sectional research design

Used to determine differences between different aged subjects at one point in time


Longitudinal research design

Measures changes on a variable of interest in the same group of participants at several points in their lives


Sequential research design

Combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs to examine cohort differences. Was created recently by Schaie to examine developmental changes in intelligence in adult



Strengths: can make cause-and-effect relationships. Researcher has control.

Weaknesses: sampling errors. Often hard to generalize to the real world



Strengths: can study real world behavior. To determine relationships.

Weaknesses: cannot determine cause-and-effect


Naturalistic observation

Strengths: can gather information and it's usual setting as it naturally occurs

Weaknesses: cannot determine cause-and-effect. Observer bias possible


Cross-sectional research design

Strengths: show data differences between different age people at one point in time. Relatively quick inexpensive

Weaknesses: cannot show changes that occur with age. Findings may be subject to birth cohort effects


Longitudinal study designs

Strengths: data show how a sample of people change as they age

Weaknesses: time-consuming and expensive. May not be able to generalize the findings to other birth cohort. May have a problem of subject drop out


Sequential research method

Strengths: has the strength of both the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods and can also measure birth cohort effects

Weaknesses: time-consuming and expensive. May have the problem of subject drop out