Flashcards in Intelligence Throughout The Lifespan Deck (33)
Because intelligence is a hypothetical construct give some definitions of intelligence:
The capacity to acquire and use knowledge
The total body of acquired knowledge
The ability to arrive at innovative solutions to problems
The ability to deal effectively with one's environment
Knowledge of one's culture
The global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment
Charles Spearman concluded what about intelligence?
That cognitive abilities could be narrowed down to one critical G factor, or general intelligence
JP Guilford proposed what about intelligence?
He proposed that intelligence consists of 150 distinct abilities
LL Thurstone used the statistical technique known as factor analysis to find seven independent primary mental abilities; what abilities were these?
Numerical ability, reasoning, verbal fluency, spatial visualization, perceptual ability, memory, and verbal comprehension
Raymond B. Cattell argued what in regards to intelligence?
Cattell argued that a G factor does exist, but cognitive ability consists of fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
Reasoning and problem-solving
Specific knowledge gained from applying fluid intelligence
Robert Sternberg proposed what about intelligence?
Sternberg proposed a triarchic theory of intelligence that specifies three important parts of intelligence: componential intelligence, experiential intelligence, and contextual intelligence
Includes met the components, performance components, and knowledge acquisition components
Provides abilities to deal with novelty and to automatize processing
Includes practical intelligence and social intelligence
Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences proposed…
That there are seven different components of intelligence that include not only language ability, logical mathematical thinking, and spatial thinking but also musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal thinking
The first effective test of intelligence was devised in the early ... by who...?
It was devised in the early 1900s by French psychologist Alfred Binet
Binet, And his colleague Theodore Simon, devised and intelligence test consisting of how many subsets containing problems of increasing difficulty
Binet and Simon introduced a scale that brought about the notion of mental age. What is mental age?
The measure of a child's intellectual level that is independent of the child chronological age
Lewis M. Terman of Stanford University and his colleagues help refine and standardized Binet's test for American children.
What was this version of the test called?
Stanford-Binet intelligence scale
Intelligence quotient is...
Calculate the IQ of a child's mental age, divided by his or her chronological age, and multiply by 100
List one major problem with the ratio IQ score
Most people's mental development slows in their late teens
David Wechsler corrected the ratio IQ problem scores by devising the…
Deviation IQ score
The deviation IQ score is calculated by converting the raw scores on each subset of the test standard scores nominalized for each age group
The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is also known as…
Standard age score (SAS)
And what year did David Wechsler publish a test designed exclusively for adults, and what was the name of the test?
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised (WAIS-R)
Wechsler also published two scales for children and these are now known as:
Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, revised (WPPSI-R). For children forward to six years of age
Wechsler intelligence scale for children, third edition (WISC-III). For children 6 to 16 years of age
Bayley Scales of Infant Intelligence is a test designed to be used with infants aged…
2 to 30 months
Bayley Scales of Infant Intelligence includes three scales on this test. The scales are:
Motor scale, the mental scale, and the infant behavior record
Infants who take the Bayley Scales of Infant Intelligence test receive what type of quotient?
Developmental quotient (DQ)
Validity is often assessed using…
Heritability as an estimate of what?
How much of a trait in a population is determined by genetic inheritance
Sandra Scarr and other researchers have shown that underprivileged children placed in homes that provide an enriched intellectual environment have shown what?
A moderate but consistent increases in intelligence
Define terminal drop
A rapid decline and intellectual performance shortly before death