Theory's Of Development Flashcards Preview

CLEP Human Growth & Development > Theory's Of Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Theory's Of Development Deck (67)
Loading flashcards...
0

According to the nurture side, at birth the human mind is like a blank, or…

Tabula rasa

1

True or false:

Most theorists agree that it is implausible for nature or nurture to be the sole influence on our growth and development

True

2

Discontinuity, or stage theories, argue that development processes through a series of stages.

Each stage is seen as involving a specific task. Once the task is accomplished the child moves on to the next stage. The developing person is seen as not changing quantitatively, but qualitatively.

3

What theory best suggest development is best described as a steady growth process. Developmental change is described as occurring in small steps or increments.

Continuity theories.

4

A lifespan theorist argued that growth and change continue to occur throughout the entire lifespan. Give an example of a lifespan perspective theorist.

Eric Erickson

5

What theorist argued that all children progress through the same stages of cognitive development in the same order and at the same approximate age?

Jean Piaget

6

Paiget believed that there was a…

Universality of cognitive development

7

Cognitive developmental theory is based on the notion that…

Cognitive abilities are developed as individuals mature physiologically and have opportunities to interact with their environment.

8

Paiget described interactions of equilibrium of accommodation and assimilation cycle and what theory?

Cognitive developmental theory

9

Paiget describe constructivism in that children…

Construct schema, organized patterns of thought or action, based on the experiences they have actively exploring the environment.

10

What are Piaget's four stages of cognitive development?

Sensorimotor stage, describing individuals from birth to around the age of two.

Preoperational, is characterized by egocentrism, rigidity of thought, semi logical reasoning, and limited social cognition.

Concrete operations, the beginning of operational thinking and describes the thinking of children between the ages of seven and 11. Learners at this age begin to decenter.

Formal operations, the last stage of cognitive development and opens wide the door for higher ordered, critical thinking.

11

Ivan Pavlov Believe and learning theory, or the behaviorist perspective. What does this mean?

Learning theory suggests that behavior is controlled by stimuli in the environment.this process can also be known as classical conditioning.

12

What is unconditioned stimulus (UCS)?

A stimulus that automatically elicits a motor response without training or conditioning, and the unconditioned response (UCR), the untrained motor response.

13

A stimulus that is consistently paired with the UCS is called…

Conditioned stimulus (CS)

14

Conditioned stimulus alone elicits the reflexive response that is known as…

Condition response (CS)

15

What did Pavlov described as a generalization?

Generalization is observed when I conditioned response is elicited by stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus.

16

Pavlov demonstrated discrimination as…

The op. cit. of generalization. Discrimination is the process of conditioning in response to occur only after a specific stimulus is presented.

17

Extinction was demonstrated by Pavlov as…

Extension is the unlearning of a conditioned stimulus.

18

Who extended the work of Pavlov by studying classical conditioning of emotional responses and children?

John Watson. Watson believe that at birth we have a small number of emotional responses in our behavior repertoire. These are love, anger, and fear.

19

What American psychologist developed a learning theory called operant conditioning?

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

20

BF Skinner theorized that behavior can be shaped through…

Behavior reinforcement and punishment.

21

What is positive reinforcement?

It is the reward or rewarding condition that is experienced after a behavioral response.

22

What is negative reinforcement?

It is when a noxious or unpleasant condition is removed when their behavioral response is emitted.

23

In the late 1960's, a major shift in thinking about learning and social cognitive theory was introduced by who?

Albert Bandura

24

Albert Bandura introduce the idea that changes in behavior are required not only through the processes of conditioning, but also through…

Observational learning.

Bandura observed that people can emit a new behavior and it's complete form after simply watching someone else perform that behavior.

25

What is vicarious reinforcement?

The affect that seeing a model being reinforced has an observational learning.

26

Who could be considered the father of psychodynamic theory?

Sigmund Freud

27

Freud they arise that personality is mainly what?

Unconscious and is based on early experiences with parents that she personality.

28

Freud's three main points of very emphasized…

1) childhood experiences determinable personality.

2) unconscious mental processes influence everyday behavior.

3) conflict causes most human behavior.

29

Id

Develops at birth.

Functions as the pleasure principle, unconscious instincts, irrational, seeks instant gratification, contains the libido