Flashcards in Comprehensive Questions Deck (144)
What is it called when an end product speeds up its own production?
What are the four kingdoms of domain eukarya?
What are the 10 levels of Biological Organization?
Organs and Organ Systems
What is a hypothesis?
A tentative answer to a well framed question
What is biology’s core theme?
What type of reasoning proceeds from general observations to specific predictions?
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative data?
Quantitative is numerical.
Qualitative is descriptive.
What is Biology's Central Dogma?
DNA --> RNA --> Protein
What are the two major processes of Ecosystem dynamics?
1. Chemical Nutrients Recycle
2. Energy Flows
What are the two main types of cells?
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic
What are the three domains organisms are divided into?
What is the mechanism behind evolution that Darwin proposed?
Give 3 examples of abiotic factors that exist in an ecosystem.
water, rocks, lawn mowers,
(anything not alive)
The ____________ is life’s fundamental unit of structure and function.
What is the ultimate source of energy for living things?
What is the fundamental unit of life?
What is the molecule that can account for both the unity and diversity of life?
What are the seven characteristics of life?
Response to Environment
Growth and Development
An explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis is a___.
All the organisms on your campus make up a ___.
A ______ is a tentative answer to a well-framed question.
What is the strongest type of chemical bond?
What is a positively charged ion called?
A ________ is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio, Ex: H2O.
Two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons are__.
The sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms is a _________.
These kind of elements are required by and organism in only very small amounts.
Where can an electron be found 90% of the time?
in an orbital
An atom has an atomic number of 8 and a mass number of 17. How many protons, neutrons and electrons does it have?
P = 8
N = 9
E = 8
List the three subatomic particles that make up an atom and their charges.
Neutron (no charge)
Is a hydrogen bond a strong or a weak chemical bond?
List three types of bonds.
What is anything that takes up space and has mass?
What is it called when the forward and reverse rates of a reaction are equal?
What is an attraction between ions of opposite charge?
What are electrons found in the outermost electron shell called?
What type of interaction makes it possible for geckos to stick to a wall?
Van der Waals Interactions
The number of protons and the number of neutrons equals the _____.
What is the name for a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions?
What is electronegativity?
An atom's attraction for the electrons in a covalent bond.
Draw the electron shell diagram of an atom with mass number 13 and atomic number of 7.
How many electrons fit into the first electron energy shell?
What is adhesion?
An attraction between different substances, for example between water and plant cell walls.
(water sticking to other stuff)
When a substance does not have an affinity for water or it is "water hating", it is called__________. Water loving is called __________.
Water molecules ability to stick to other water molecules is known as _______________.
Name water’s four emergent properties.
1. Cohesive Behavior
2. Ability to Moderate Temperature
3. Expansion Upon Freezing
4. Versatility as a Solvent
A compound that donates hydrogen ions to a solution is an ________.
How difficult is it to stretch or break the surface of a liquid?
A substance that minimizes changes in concentration of H+ and OH- in a solution is called a _______.
How many particles are in one mole?
6.02 x 10^23 molecules
What is an aqueous solution?
One in which water is the solvent
What are the Celsius temperatures of the following conditions? body temperature, ice freezing, water boiling, room temperature?
0 - Where water/ice freezes
25 - Room Temperature
37 - Body Temperature
100 - Where water boils
What is the difference between a solvent and a solute?
-A solvent is the dissolving agent of a solution (the wet stuff, water, alcohol, etc).
-A solute is the substance that is being dissolved (the powdery like stuff, salt, sugar, etc).
Determine the pH when the [OH-] = 10^-4
pH = 10
Which has higher heat the ocean or a person?
The ocean has more heat
A sphere of water molecules around a dissolved ion is known as a __________.
The water molecule is a ___________ _____________: the opposite ends have opposite charges.
Ammonia has a pH of 11.6. Is it an acid, base, or neutral?
What is the dissolving agent of a solution?
Water is a very versatile solvent because water molecules are ___.
polar, which allows it to form hydrogen bonds easily.
As a liquid evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down, this is called?
What is the name for the property that describes how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid?
The burning of fossil fuels increases the amount of ______ in the atmosphere.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Isomers that are mirror images of each other are called _____.
What are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties.
What are the chemical symbols and valences of the four most common elements in living organisms?
The study of compounds that contain carbon is ____________.
Name and draw two of the seven biologically important functional groups.
Which functional group can act as an acid?
What are the three types of isomers?
What organic molecules consist of only hydrogen & carbon?
What is the primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell?
What type of isomer has double bonds?
Differentiate between ketones and aldehydes.
-Ketones are when its found in the middle.
-Aldehydes are when its found at the end.
Who showed abiotic synthesis of organic compounds?
Which functional group is important in protein cross-links?
Which functional group is responsible for affecting gene expression?
What element do all organic compounds contain?
Which functional group contains nitrogen?
Are hydrocarbons hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
________ is a belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws.
What type of bonds does Carbon make?
When water is lost between two monomers, what process is occurring?
Name the two storage polysaccharides.
Starch and Glycogen
What forms the exoskeleton of arthropods?
The bond between two monosaccharides is called a ________.
Draw the structure of an amino acid.
What are the two general structures found at the secondary level of protein folding?
B pleated sheet
What kind of bond holds together amino acids?
Linking multiple monomers together results in the creation of a ___.
What are the four macromolecules and their monomers?
-proteins- amino acids
-nucleic acids- nucleotides
What are the two purines?
adenine and guanine
What is the name of the proteins that assist in the proper folding of other proteins?
Glucose + Glucose = ___________.
The overall three dimensional of a single polypeptide it the ___.
Building blocks of polymers are called_________.
What are the three components of a nucleotide.
a nitrogenous base,
a phosphate group,
What are the three types of lipids?
What is the function of glycogen?
What is the molecular formula for Glucose?
When proteins lose their correct formation and "melt" this is called ____.
________ fats are solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats are ___________ at room temperature.
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary are levels of what structure?
What are the four things plants have that animals do not have?
central vacuole and tonoplast
What is a cytoplasmic channel through cell walls that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells?
____ cells are usually larger than ___ cells.
Where is most of the DNA located in a Eukaryotic cell?
List three things in animal cells but not in plant cells.
lysosomes, centrioles, flagella
What is the name for the semifluid, jellylike substance inside all cells?
Where does cellular respiration take place?
What is the major limitation of a light microscope?
most subcellular structures, including organelles, are too small to be resolved (seen) by it
What makes the smooth ER different from the rough ER?
the smooth ER lacks ribosomes
Which organelle recycles damaged or old organelles?
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?
modify, package, and shipping
List the three fibers that make up the cytoskeleton of a cell.
What is the purpose of a tight junction?
prevent leakage of extracellular fluid
The Nuclear envelope, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles and Plasma membrane make up what in a Eukaryotic cell?
What cellular structure is made up ribosomal RNA and is responsible for protein synthesis?
A substance moving from outside the cell into the cytoplasm must pass through what?
What are the three types of cellular junctions in animal cells?
What is a stack of thylakoids called?
What takes cells apart and separate the major organelles from one another?
What are three structures that all cells have in common?
What is the scientific name for plant cells in a hypotonic solution?
What kind of cell transport requires no work?
What happens to an animal cell in a hypertonic environment?
it becomes shriveled/crenate
What is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane?
The plasma membrane exhibits the ability to allow some substances to cross it more easily than others. Therefore we say that the plasma membrane is ____________________
Draw a phospholipid, and label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.
Heat is an example of _______ energy and chemical energy is and example of ________ energy.
Active transport requires the presence of ______ and ______. This transport moves molecules ____________ their concentration gradient.
transport proteins and ATP (Energy) ; against
What are three things that the permeability of a membrane to a solute depends on?
-size of molecule
-polarity of molecule
-presence/absence of transport proteins in the membrane
What type of channel protein facilitates the passage of water?
What is the purpose of cholesterol in a membrane when it is cold? When it is hot?
-At cold temperatures, it maintains fluidity by preventing tight packing.
-At hot temperatures, it restrains movement of phospholipids.
What are the two types of transport proteins?
What are the three types of endocytosis?
What is the major electrogenic pump in plants?
A 20% NaCl solution is separated from a 10% NaCl solution by a membrane that is permeable only to water. What will move? Which direction will the molecules move?
The diffusion of substances across a membrane that requires no energy is called what?
Using scientific terminology describe a plant cell placed in a hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solution.
-hypertonic - plasmolyzed
When a membrane protein enables the "downhill" diffusion of one solute to drive the "uphill" transport of the other it is called _____ of two solutes.
What is a molecule called that contains both hydrophobic/phillic regions?
What moves substances against their concentration gradients?