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Flashcards in Comprehensive Questions Deck (144):
1

What is it called when an end product speeds up its own production?

positive feedback

2

What are the four kingdoms of domain eukarya?

Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Animalia
Protista

3

What are the 10 levels of Biological Organization?

Biosphere
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Organism
Organs and Organ Systems
Tissue
Cell
Organelles
Molecule

4

What is a hypothesis?

A tentative answer to a well framed question

5

What is biology’s core theme?

Evolution

6

What type of reasoning proceeds from general observations to specific predictions?

Deductive reasoning

7

What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative data?

Quantitative is numerical.
Qualitative is descriptive.

8

What is Biology's Central Dogma?

DNA --> RNA --> Protein

9

What are the two major processes of Ecosystem dynamics?

1. Chemical Nutrients Recycle
2. Energy Flows

10

What are the two main types of cells?

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic

11

What are the three domains organisms are divided into?

Domain Bacteria
Domain Archaea
Domain Eukarya

12

What is the mechanism behind evolution that Darwin proposed?

Natural Selection

13

Give 3 examples of abiotic factors that exist in an ecosystem.

water, rocks, lawn mowers,
(anything not alive)

14

The ____________ is life’s fundamental unit of structure and function.

cell

15

What is the ultimate source of energy for living things?

the sun

16

What is the fundamental unit of life?

the cell

17

What is the molecule that can account for both the unity and diversity of life?

DNA

18

What are the seven characteristics of life?

Order
Evolutionary Adaption
Response to Environment
Reproduction
Growth and Development
Energy Processing
Regulation

19

An explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis is a___.

theory

20

All the organisms on your campus make up a ___.

community

21

A ______ is a tentative answer to a well-framed question.

hypothesis

22

What is the strongest type of chemical bond?

covalent bond

23

What is a positively charged ion called?

cation

24

A ________ is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio, Ex: H2O.

compound

25

Two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons are__.

isotope

26

The sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms is a _________.

covalent bond

27

These kind of elements are required by and organism in only very small amounts.

trace elements

28

Where can an electron be found 90% of the time?

in an orbital

29

An atom has an atomic number of 8 and a mass number of 17. How many protons, neutrons and electrons does it have?

P = 8
N = 9
E = 8

30

List the three subatomic particles that make up an atom and their charges.

Proton (+)
Electron (-)
Neutron (no charge)

31

Is a hydrogen bond a strong or a weak chemical bond?

weak

32

List three types of bonds.

Covalent Bonds
Ionic Bonds
Hydrogen Bonds

33

What is anything that takes up space and has mass?

Matter

34

What is it called when the forward and reverse rates of a reaction are equal?

Chemical Equilibrium

35

What is an attraction between ions of opposite charge?

Ionic bond

36

What are electrons found in the outermost electron shell called?

Valence Electrons

37

What type of interaction makes it possible for geckos to stick to a wall?

Van der Waals Interactions

38

The number of protons and the number of neutrons equals the _____.

Mass Number

39

What is the name for a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions?

Element

40

What is electronegativity?

An atom's attraction for the electrons in a covalent bond.

41

Draw the electron shell diagram of an atom with mass number 13 and atomic number of 7.

??????

42

How many electrons fit into the first electron energy shell?

Two

43

What is adhesion?

An attraction between different substances, for example between water and plant cell walls.
(water sticking to other stuff)

44

When a substance does not have an affinity for water or it is "water hating", it is called__________. Water loving is called __________.

hydrophobic; hydrophilic

45

Water molecules ability to stick to other water molecules is known as _______________.

Cohesion

46

Name water’s four emergent properties.

1. Cohesive Behavior
2. Ability to Moderate Temperature
3. Expansion Upon Freezing
4. Versatility as a Solvent

47

A compound that donates hydrogen ions to a solution is an ________.

Acid

48

How difficult is it to stretch or break the surface of a liquid?

??????

49

A substance that minimizes changes in concentration of H+ and OH- in a solution is called a _______.

Buffer

50

How many particles are in one mole?

6.02 x 10^23 molecules

51

What is an aqueous solution?

One in which water is the solvent

52

What are the Celsius temperatures of the following conditions? body temperature, ice freezing, water boiling, room temperature?

0 - Where water/ice freezes
25 - Room Temperature
37 - Body Temperature
100 - Where water boils

53

What is the difference between a solvent and a solute?

-A solvent is the dissolving agent of a solution (the wet stuff, water, alcohol, etc).
-A solute is the substance that is being dissolved (the powdery like stuff, salt, sugar, etc).

54

Determine the pH when the [OH-] = 10^-4

pH = 10

55

Which has higher heat the ocean or a person?

The ocean has more heat

56

A sphere of water molecules around a dissolved ion is known as a __________.

Hydration Shell

57

The water molecule is a ___________ _____________: the opposite ends have opposite charges.

polar molecule

58

Ammonia has a pH of 11.6. Is it an acid, base, or neutral?

Base

59

What is the dissolving agent of a solution?

Solvent

60

Water is a very versatile solvent because water molecules are ___.

polar, which allows it to form hydrogen bonds easily.

61

As a liquid evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down, this is called?

Evaporative Cooling

62

What is the name for the property that describes how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid?

Surface Tension

63

The burning of fossil fuels increases the amount of ______ in the atmosphere.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

64

Isomers that are mirror images of each other are called _____.

Enantiomers

65

What are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties.

Isomers

66

What are the chemical symbols and valences of the four most common elements in living organisms?

??????

67

The study of compounds that contain carbon is ____________.

Organic Chemistry

68

Name and draw two of the seven biologically important functional groups.

??????

69

Which functional group can act as an acid?

Carboxyl

70

What are the three types of isomers?

-Structural Isomers
-Cis-trans Isomers
-Enantiomers

71

What organic molecules consist of only hydrogen & carbon?

Hydrocarbons

72

What is the primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell?

ATP

73

What type of isomer has double bonds?

Cis-trans Isomers

74

Differentiate between ketones and aldehydes.

-Ketones are when its found in the middle.
-Aldehydes are when its found at the end.

75

Who showed abiotic synthesis of organic compounds?

Stanley Miller

76

Which functional group is important in protein cross-links?

Sulfhydryl

77

Which functional group is responsible for affecting gene expression?

Methyl

78

What element do all organic compounds contain?

Carbon

79

Which functional group contains nitrogen?

Amino

80

Are hydrocarbons hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

Hydrophobic

81

________ is a belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws.

Vitalism

82

What type of bonds does Carbon make?

Covalent Bonds

83

When water is lost between two monomers, what process is occurring?

Dehydration Reaction

84

Name the two storage polysaccharides.

Starch and Glycogen

85

What forms the exoskeleton of arthropods?

Chitin

86

The bond between two monosaccharides is called a ________.

glycosidic linkage

87

Draw the structure of an amino acid.

??????

88

What are the two general structures found at the secondary level of protein folding?

a helix
and
B pleated sheet

89

What kind of bond holds together amino acids?

peptide bonds

90

Linking multiple monomers together results in the creation of a ___.

polymer

91

What are the four macromolecules and their monomers?

-Carbohydrates- monosaccharides
-lipids- none
-proteins- amino acids
-nucleic acids- nucleotides

92

What are the two purines?

adenine and guanine

93

What is the name of the proteins that assist in the proper folding of other proteins?

Chaperonins

94

Glucose + Glucose = ___________.

maltose

95

The overall three dimensional of a single polypeptide it the ___.

??????

96

Building blocks of polymers are called_________.

monomers

97

What are the three components of a nucleotide.

a nitrogenous base,
a phosphate group,
a sugar

98

What are the three types of lipids?

fats
phospholipids
steroids

99

What is the function of glycogen?

storage

100

What is the molecular formula for Glucose?

C6H12O6

101

When proteins lose their correct formation and "melt" this is called ____.

denaturation

102

________ fats are solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats are ___________ at room temperature.

saturated; liquid

103

Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary are levels of what structure?

protein

104

What are the four things plants have that animals do not have?

chloroplasts
central vacuole and tonoplast
cell wall
plasmodesmata

105

What is a cytoplasmic channel through cell walls that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells?

gap junction

106

____ cells are usually larger than ___ cells.

eukaryotic; prokaryotic

107

Where is most of the DNA located in a Eukaryotic cell?

nucleus

108

List three things in animal cells but not in plant cells.

lysosomes, centrioles, flagella

109

What is the name for the semifluid, jellylike substance inside all cells?

cytosol

110

Where does cellular respiration take place?

mitochondria

111

What is the major limitation of a light microscope?

most subcellular structures, including organelles, are too small to be resolved (seen) by it

112

What makes the smooth ER different from the rough ER?

the smooth ER lacks ribosomes

113

Which organelle recycles damaged or old organelles?

lysosomes

114

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

modify, package, and shipping

115

List the three fibers that make up the cytoskeleton of a cell.

microtubules
microfilaments
intermediate filaments

116

What is the purpose of a tight junction?

prevent leakage of extracellular fluid

117

The Nuclear envelope, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles and Plasma membrane make up what in a Eukaryotic cell?

Endomembrane System

118

What cellular structure is made up ribosomal RNA and is responsible for protein synthesis?

ribosomes

119

A substance moving from outside the cell into the cytoplasm must pass through what?

??????

120

What are the three types of cellular junctions in animal cells?

tight junctions
desmosomes
gap junctions

121

What is a stack of thylakoids called?

granum (grana)

122

What takes cells apart and separate the major organelles from one another?

cell fractionation

123

What are three structures that all cells have in common?

plasma membrane
cytosol
chromosomes
ribosomes

124

What is the scientific name for plant cells in a hypotonic solution?

turgid

125

What kind of cell transport requires no work?

passive transport

126

What happens to an animal cell in a hypertonic environment?

it becomes shriveled/crenate

127

What is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane?

osmosis

128

The plasma membrane exhibits the ability to allow some substances to cross it more easily than others. Therefore we say that the plasma membrane is ____________________

selectively permeable

129

Draw a phospholipid, and label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.

??????

130

Heat is an example of _______ energy and chemical energy is and example of ________ energy.

kinetic; potential

131

Active transport requires the presence of ______ and ______. This transport moves molecules ____________ their concentration gradient.

transport proteins and ATP (Energy) ; against

132

What are three things that the permeability of a membrane to a solute depends on?

-size of molecule
-polarity of molecule
-presence/absence of transport proteins in the membrane

133

What type of channel protein facilitates the passage of water?

aquaporins

134

What is the purpose of cholesterol in a membrane when it is cold? When it is hot?

-At cold temperatures, it maintains fluidity by preventing tight packing.
-At hot temperatures, it restrains movement of phospholipids.

135

What are the two types of transport proteins?

Channel proteins
and
carrier proteins

136

What are the three types of endocytosis?

phagocytosis
pinocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis

137

What is the major electrogenic pump in plants?

proton pump

138

A 20% NaCl solution is separated from a 10% NaCl solution by a membrane that is permeable only to water. What will move? Which direction will the molecules move?

??????

139

The diffusion of substances across a membrane that requires no energy is called what?

passive transport

140

Using scientific terminology describe a plant cell placed in a hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solution.

-hypertonic - plasmolyzed
-hypotonic- turgid
-isotonic- flaccid

141

When a membrane protein enables the "downhill" diffusion of one solute to drive the "uphill" transport of the other it is called _____ of two solutes.

cotransport ??

142

What is a molecule called that contains both hydrophobic/phillic regions?

amphipathic molecules
or
phospholipids

143

What moves substances against their concentration gradients?

transport proteins

144

What is the name for energy that matter possesses because of its location or chemical structure?

??????