Chapter 18.5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18.5 Deck (21):
1

Cancer results from

genetic changes that affect cell cycle control

2

The gene regulation systems that go wrong during cancer are the very same systems involved in

embryonic development

3

Cancer can be caused by

mutations to genes that regulate cell growth and division

4

Tumor viruses can cause cancer in

animals including humans

5

Oncogenes are

cancer-causing genes.

(bad genes. don't want oncogenes)

6

Proto-oncogenes are

the corresponding normal cellular genes that are responsible for normal cell grown and division.

(good genes)

7

Conversion of a proto-oncogene to an oncogene can lead to

abnormal stimulation of the cell cycle, (then they divide a lot and turn into cancer)

8

Tumor-suppressor genes help

prevent uncontrolled cell growth

(good genes. they stop us from having tumors)

9

Mutations that decrease protein products of tumor-suppressor genes may contribute to

cancer onset

10

Tumor-suppressor proteins

-Repair damaged DNA
-Control cell adhesion
-Inhibit the cell cycle in the cell-signaling pathway

11

Mutations in the ras proto-oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene are

common in human cancers

12

Mutations in the ras gene can lead to

production of a hyperactive Ras protein and increased cell division

13

Suppression of the cell cycle can be important in the case of

damage to a cell's DNA; p53 prevents a cell from passing on mutations due to DNA damage

14

Mutations in the p53 gene prevent

suppression of the cell cycle

15

ras

proto-oncogene ((and oncogene??))

16

p53

tumor-suppressor gene

17

Multistep mutations are generally needed for

full-fledged cancer; thus the incidence increases with age

18

At the DNA level, a cancerous cell is usually

characterized by at least one active oncogene and the mutation of several tumor-suppressor genes

19

Individuals can inherit

oncogenes or mutant alleles of tumor-suppressor genes

20

Inherited mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli are

common in individuals with colorectal cancer

21

Mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are found in at least

half of inherited breast cancers, and tests using DNA sequencing can detect these mutations