Flashcards in Unit 11 Quiz Deck (38)
2. Protein Synthesis
Monomers are called
DNA Nucleotide Structure
3. One nitrogenous base
Base Pairing Rule
A with T
G with C
Adenine and Thymine are held together by
2 hydrogen bonds
Guanine and Cytosine are help together by
3 hydrogen bonds
Mismatch base pair results in
2 types of mutations
lethal and nonlethal
AA or AO
BB or BO
the universal recipient (AB+)
the universal done
O has an
absence of antigens
+ or - that goes on the blood types.
A chemical on the surface of blood.
there are two antigens on blood, A and B
In plasma of blood against the opposite of the antigens you have.
So if you have A antigens, then you have B antibodies, and vice versa.
AB has no
A and B antibodies
+ can get
+ or - types
- can only get
A+ can only get
is a technique that separates DNA molecules based upon their relative size to analyze different properties of genetic material
Gel Electrophoresis is a method that
separates macromolecules such as DNA fragments on the basis of fragment size and the electrical charge of the molecule.
In this technique (gel electrophoresis)
fragments of a DNA molecule are forced across a span of gel, motivated by an electrical current
DNA molecules have a
negative electrical charge
How are the DNA samples prepared?
A sample of DNA is taken from a person.
Example: from blood or from an inner cheek cell swab.
Restriction enzymes are added to the DNA in a solution.
The restriction enzymes cut the DNA into fragments at specific ares called
the key to this process is this:
every human has restriction sites on their DNA molecules in different places. Which means that the fragments that my DNA is cut into will not match the size fragments that your DNA is cut into.
the DNA fragments are loaded by pipette into loading wells formed in a gel. The gel is covered by a buffer solution and placed in an electric chamber. The electric current forces the charged DNA fragments to diffuse through the gel.
Since small molecules diffuse more quickly than large ones,
the small DNA fragments will diffuse more quickly through the gel than the large ones. The DNA will appear as dark colored bands in the gel.
Since each humans DNA will have been cut into unique size fragments,
then each persons DNA will have its own unique distinctive banding pattern in the gel.
DNA gel electrophoresis can be used to
identify DNA from a crime scene and match it to a suspect. It can also be sued to identify the father of a child in cases of disputed paternity.