Unit 11 Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 11 Quiz Deck (38):
1

DNA

1. Heredity
2. Protein Synthesis

2

DNA shape

double helix

3

Monomers are called

nucleotides

4

DNA Nucleotide Structure

1. Phosphate
2. Sugar
3. One nitrogenous base

5

DNA Bases

1. Adenine
2. Thymine
3. Guanine
4. Cytosine

6

Base Pairing Rule

A with T
G with C

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Adenine and Thymine are held together by

2 hydrogen bonds

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Guanine and Cytosine are help together by

3 hydrogen bonds

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Mismatch base pair results in

mutation.

10

2 types of mutations

lethal and nonlethal

11

Blood Typing

A
B
AB
O

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A type

AA or AO

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B type

BB or BO

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AB

AB

15

O

OO

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AB is

the universal recipient (AB+)

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O is

the universal done

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O has an

absence of antigens

19

Rh Factor

+ or - that goes on the blood types.
A chemical on the surface of blood.

20

Antigen

there are two antigens on blood, A and B

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Antibody

In plasma of blood against the opposite of the antigens you have.

So if you have A antigens, then you have B antibodies, and vice versa.

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AB has no

antibodies.

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O has

A and B antibodies

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+ can get

+ or - types

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- can only get

- types

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A+ can only get

A+, A-
O-. O+

27

Gel Electrophoresis

is a technique that separates DNA molecules based upon their relative size to analyze different properties of genetic material

28

Gel Electrophoresis is a method that

separates macromolecules such as DNA fragments on the basis of fragment size and the electrical charge of the molecule.

29

In this technique (gel electrophoresis)

fragments of a DNA molecule are forced across a span of gel, motivated by an electrical current

30

DNA molecules have a

negative electrical charge

31

How are the DNA samples prepared?

A sample of DNA is taken from a person.
Example: from blood or from an inner cheek cell swab.
Restriction enzymes are added to the DNA in a solution.

32

The restriction enzymes cut the DNA into fragments at specific ares called

restriction sites.

33

the key to this process is this:

every human has restriction sites on their DNA molecules in different places. Which means that the fragments that my DNA is cut into will not match the size fragments that your DNA is cut into.

34

Electrophoresis results:

the DNA fragments are loaded by pipette into loading wells formed in a gel. The gel is covered by a buffer solution and placed in an electric chamber. The electric current forces the charged DNA fragments to diffuse through the gel.

35

Since small molecules diffuse more quickly than large ones,

the small DNA fragments will diffuse more quickly through the gel than the large ones. The DNA will appear as dark colored bands in the gel.

36

Since each humans DNA will have been cut into unique size fragments,

then each persons DNA will have its own unique distinctive banding pattern in the gel.

37

DNA gel electrophoresis can be used to

identify DNA from a crime scene and match it to a suspect. It can also be sued to identify the father of a child in cases of disputed paternity.

38

clumping in blood indicates

antigen is present