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Flashcards in Unit 1 Exam Deck (41)

George (Voices that Carry)




Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Amendment 13

Who: slaves, blacks,
What: abolishes slavery
When: 1865 After the civil war, during reconstruction.
Where: The united states. the postwar South.
Why it happened: The civil war ended, and one of the causes of the civil war was slavery, so when the civil war ended, it ended slavery as well.
Why it is significant: Slavery was abolished. but the question of the freed blacks' status in the postwar south was still very much unresolved. It led to the black codes.


Black Codes

Who: former slaves/blacks. White southerners.
What: Laws passed in southern states to restrict the rights of former slaves. A system to keep blacks as close to slave status as possible. They were designed to restrict freed blacks' activity and ensure their availability as a labor force now that slavery had been abolished.
When: during the reconstruction era. 1865-1866
Where: the former confederate states/the south.
Why it happened: Slavery was abolished in the 13th amendment, but many people, such as the white southerners, did not like that slavery was abolished. President Johnson had very lenient reconstruction policies so they enacted a series of restrictive laws known as these black codes, in order to keep the the blacks as close to slave status as possible.
Why it is significant: It led to the Republicans fighting back and trying to control reconstruction because they didn't like what President Johnson was doing. By the late 1866 control over reconstruction had shifted to the Republican party in congress.

For instance, many states required blacks to sign yearly labor contracts; if they refused, they risked being arrested as vagrants and fined or forced into unpaid labor. Northern outrage over the black codes helped undermine support for Johnson's policies, and by late 1866 control over Reconstruction had shifted to the more radical wing of the Republican Party in Congress.

; to nullify the codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment.


Amendment 14

Who: former slaves
What: Guaranteed rights of citizenship to former slaves, in words similar to those of the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
When: 1868
Where: the united states
Why it happened: The republicans didn't like what Johnson was doing and they wanted to fight back and control reconstruction.
Why it is significant: It doesn't allow slavery by any means in any state. Every person has equivalent protection under the law, african americans got citizenship and get the exact same rights as americans. No state is authorized to pass any law that would take any rights of a citizen away. Former slaves get citizenship.


Amendment 15

Who: black and white men in the U.S.
What: Prohibited states from denying citizens the right to vote because of race. Gives voting rights to men, both white and black.
When: 1870
Where: the united states
Why it happened: The republicans didnt like what president johnson was doing with reconstruction and they wanted to control it and give voting rights to blacks
Why it is significant: Voting rights are granted to men (black and white)


Ku Klux Klan

Who: white supremacists
What: a secret organization of terror created by white supremacists who opposed african americans and anyone who supported them.
When: 1868. the reconstruction era.
Where: It arose out of Tennessee. through out the south of the united states.
Why it happened: They did not like that blacks were able to vote and were citizens and everything. So they tried to intimidate any black man who tried to vote or who had boted by burning their homes, churches, schools, and even resorted to murder. they didn't like anyone who supported the blacks either. They didnt like that they were losing superiority over blacks.
Why it is significant: the ku klux klan act was passed in 1871 by federal government. The civils rights act was passed in 1875 which was an act to protect all citizens in their legal and civil rights.


Plessy V. Ferguson

What: U.S. Supreme Court decision supporting the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted or required separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites.
When: 1896
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Robber Barons

Who: rockefeller, carnegie
What: the rise of businessmen. they wanted to make america better. start charities. really rich. make money off the poor.
When: during the gilded age, the industrial revolution
Where: the united states
Why it happened: the industrial revolution
Why it is significant:


Transcontinental Railroad

Who: chinese laborers (cheap work),
What: a railroad that connected the country from one end to the other.
When: 1869
Where: across the united states
Why it happened: modernization. the industrial revolution.
Why it is significant: it was a force that helped bring the nation together. it connected the country from one end to another. it helped farmers get goods to market and transport cattle.

First line across the continent from Omaha, Nebraska, to Sacramento, California, established in 1869 with the linkage of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads at Promontory, Utah.



Who: African American farmers, cowboys?
What: They moved to kansas and formed a big community
When: 1870s and 1880s
Where: Nicodemus, Kansas
Why it happened: the african americans wanted to move to the west so that they could form a new big community. it was a way of african american resistance to escape the oppressive environment of the new south.
Why it is significant:

A migration by some 40,000-60,000 blacks to Kansas to escape the oppressive environment of the New South.


The Burlingame Treaty (Act)

Who: immigrants. chinese laborers.
What: allows unlimited immigration from china to do manual labor
When: 1868
Why it happened: the nation was being connected with railroad and they wanted cheap work.
Why it is significant: these immigrants were chinese laborers that were cheap work that worked on builing the railroads.


The Page Law

What: stops Chinese women without skills or male chaperons from coming into the United States
When: 1875
Why it happened: chinese laborers were coming to the united states but the united states didnt want a bunch of immigrants that had no skills and couldnt do any work.
Why it is significant: it makes it so that useless immigrants arent coming to america that arent benefiting america.


The Chinese Exclusion Act

What: it stops immigrant laborers from coming into the United States from China
When: 1882
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Richard Henry Pratt

Who: a cornel. in charge of the worst indian prisons.
What: carlisle indian industrial school. "kill the indian, save the man"
When: 1879
Where: carlisle, pennsylvania
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Frederick Jackson Turner

Who: "Father of American History"
What: he said that the frontier makes america unique. he said the west was safety valve. if you dont like where you are, then go west (Successive displacement). the west made for democracy.
When: 1893
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:

''The Significance of the Frontier in American History'' was a lecture given by Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 arguing that the western frontier had forged the distinctive qualities of American culture: individual freedom, political democracy, and economic mobility.


Bonanza Farms

What: Farms that covered thousands of acres and employed large numbers of agricultural wage workers.
Why it happened: technological advances,
Why it is significant: farmers become wage workers.


Knights of Labor

Who: Terrence Powderly
What: a union. they believed in a producerists society. People who actually make and produce goods and things. They include women, immigrants, african americans.
They sought to organize both skilled and unskilled workers, women as well as men, blacks along with whites, and achieved a membership of nearly 800,000 in 1886.
"cooperative commonwealth".
the Knights of Labor regarded inequalities of wealth and power as a growing threat to american democracy.
When: Founded in 1869
Why it happened: there was labor discontent.
Why it is significant: the knights of labor ended with the haymarket square (affair) in 1886.

Founded in 1869, the first national union lasted, under the leadership of Terence V. Powderly, only into the 1890s; supplanted by the American Federation of Labor.


American Federation of Labor

Who: Founded by Samuel Gompers
What: it was a labor organization of principally white, male, skilled workers that arose in the 1880s.
When: 1886
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:

central principles of the american federation of labor:
labor should avoid entanglement in politics.
bargaining with employers over day-to-day issues is the most promising avenue for labor.
organized labor should pursue concrete gains rather than dreamy reforms.



Who: Mary Elizabeth Lease,
What: populists (the people's party). They wanted to help the common man.
Why it happened: an oversupply of cotton on the world market, which led to a sharp decline in prices, contributed to a farmers' revolt and gave rise to the populist movement.
Why it is significant:

southern populists forged notable alliances between black and white farmers.
Populists; spoke for all ''producing classes'' and embarked on a remarkable effort of community organization and education.

Populists leading strategies:
creating cooperative enterprises through which to distribute their crops on more reasonable terms.
holding public events to give their followers a sense of power and community.
declaring political independence from the two major political parties.


Free Silver

What: having silver back up money and use silver too and not just gold. free up silver supply.
Why it happened: there wasnt enough cash circulating. the poor needed more money.
Why it is significant: farmers liked this. it makes more cash circulate. it helps farmers not rich people.

The unrestricted minting of silvery money called for by William Jennings Bryan.


William Jennings Bryan

What: democrat. not a populist. populists pick him to side with. Wanted the silver standard platform. he was one of the people in the election of 1896. he gave the cross of gold speech- people will die if they stay on the gold standard.
When: 1896
Where: united states
Why it happened:
Why it is significant: the populists lost support after this election. He loses against William Mckinley who wanted the gold standard platform (rich people).


Monroe Doctrine

What: seperate spheres for united states and europe. they dont meddle with eachother affairs. they leave eachother alone.
When: 1823
Why it happened: Road to Empire, imperialism.
Why it is significant:

????(President James Monroe�s declaration to Congress on December 2, 1823, that the American continents would be thenceforth closed to European colonization, and that the United States would not interfere in European affairs.)?????


Bayonet Constitution

Who: King David Kalakaua, Native Hawaiians
What: It takes away voting rights from native hawaiians. takes away his (king) power as king and sets him up as a constitutional figurehead. he was held at gun point to sign this constitution.
When: 1887
Where: hawaii
Why it happend:
Why it is significant:


McKinley Tariff

What: hurts sugar growers in hawaii. removes tariff on all sugars coming into the united states. gives a bounty (extra pay) to sugar growers in united states. cheaper to import and encourages americans to grow sugar
When: 1890
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Spanish American War

Who: Cuba, Spain, America,
What: Cuba wanted to be independent from Spain.
When: 1898
Why it happened: the "maine" explodes.
Why it is significant: united states as world power.


Teller Amendment

What: spain leaves cuba; the united states would not establish permanent control over cuba
When: 1898
Why it happened: the spanish american war
Why it is significant:


Platt Amendment

What: cuba would have only limited sovereignty and the united states would have guantanamo bay as a naval base
When: 1901
Why it happened: the spanish american war
Why it is significant:

Amendment to Cuban constitution that reserved the United States� right to intervene in Cuban affairs and forced newly independent Cuba to host American naval bases on the island.


New Immigrants

When: 1900-1913
Why it happened: they were fleeing religious oppression. they were feeling political oppression. birds of passage. better lives for families.
Why it is significant:


Progressive Reform

Who: a loosely defined political movement of individuals and groups who hoped to bring about social and political change in America.
What: the progressive era was a time of explosive economic growth, rapid population rise, and increased industrial production, and "Golden Age" for American agriculture.
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


The Jungle

Who: upton sinclair (a muckraker)
What: it was a book written about the urban issues during the progressive reform. it had to do with immigration.
Why it happened: during the progressive reform, there were some social and moral issues. and there were some urban issues.
Why it is significant: pure food and drug act 1906. it is another important example of federal intervention and a new activism on the part of the national government into the economy was the pure food and drug act (1906) by which the federal government became the agent policing and labeling and quality of food and drugs. (this is what came about from the Jungle book)


The New Woman

What: the modern woman. educated. more worldly. went to college. could vote. knew about other things other than housekeeping. wanted to do good in the world, but have a good time and see the world at the same time.
When: comes of age in the early 1900s.
Where: the united states
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Margaret Sanger

Who: a New Woman
What: she is associated with the birth control movement. a feminist. a new woman. founder of birth control movement.
When: 1900s? during the progressive reform
Why it happened: people in this era wanted change. there was a new woman that was more modern woman in this time. her mom had had 18 pregnancies so she decided that women shouldnt have to get pregnant everytime they have sex.
Why it is significant: her birthcontrol movement became planned parenthood. she founded the birthcontrol movement and got birthcontrol to exist. she pushed the idea that women dont have to get pregnant everytime they have sex.


Hull House

Who: Jane Addams, immigrants
What: a settlement house that helped immigrants and provided services and opportunities for them.
When: 1889
Where: Chicago
Why it happened: Jane Addams had money, was college educated, and went to Europe and saw the settlement houses they had there and decided that she wanted to help immigrants.
Why it is significant: it teaches academics, practical skills, cooking, sewing, how to speak english (dual education program) to them. it provided childcare, playgrounds (community services). and direct services.


Amendment 19

What: woman suffrage. gives women the right to vote.
When: 1920
Where: united states
Why it happened: the push for it started at the seneca falls convention in 1848. then the national woman suffrage association and american woman suffrage association (which combined and formed the national american woman suffrage association) worked to make it happen.
Why it is significant: woman get the right to vote.



What: pride in one's country
When: origin of world war 1
Where: united states
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Balance of Powers

What: each country wants more land, and each is encroaching on all the other's land.
When: origin of world war 1
Where: united states
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Who: prince of austria
What: he was assassinated by the black hand and gavrilo princip.
When: 1914
Where: in bosnia
Why it happened: archduke wanted a bigger austria, he goes on a trip to bosnia. then the blackhand goes to kill him. people in austria decide serbia should pay. austria declares war on serbia. russia mobilizes to help serbia. then they alll start joining.
Why it is significant: it is the catalyst that setts off and starts world war 1. retaliation- it becames a world war. it is a new kind of war.


The Black Hand

Who: gavrilo princip, archduke franz ferdinand, the black hand members
What: a terrorist organization from serbia. (they were not a part of the federal government)
Why it happened:
Why it is significant: it was a catalyst that started world war 1.


The Lusitania

Who: Germans and United states
What: The German U Boats sink the Lusitania.
When: 1915
Why it happened: germany warned that they would bomb any ships with contraband.
Why it is significant: it leads to the United States joining the war


American Protective League

What: formed vigilante groups (they practice their own type of justice. its not authorized by the government)
When: 1917ish
Where: the united states
Why it happened: they wanted to pressure people into supporting the war. World war 1 was going on at the time and they needed to get the people to support it. they blamed labor and socialists. Anti-german sentiment.
Why it is significant:

An organization that helped the Justice Department identify radicals and critics of the war by spying on their neighbors and carrying out ''slacker raids'' in which thousands of men were stopped on the streets of major cities and required to produce draft registration cards.