Chapter 5 and 27 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 and 27 Deck (14):
1

Macromolecules are polymers, built from

monomers

2

List the four major classes of macromolecules and their monomers

Carbohydrates- Monosaccharides
Lipids- no monomers
Proteins- Amino Acids
Nucleic Acids- Nucleotides

3

Distinguish between monomers and polymers

A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks.
example: like 4 expo markers being put together and forming a long stick

Monomers are the small building-block molecules that made up a polymer.
Example: One of the expo markers would be a monomer.

4

Draw diagrams to illustrate condensation (dehydration reaction) and hydrolysis reactions

Dehydration reaction (condensation):
synthesizing a polymer.
This occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss/production of a water molecule.
Building up.
Remove water from something (Dehydrate it) and removing the water will cause things to build up/stick together
-Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond.

Hydrolysis Reactions:
breaking down a polymer.
This is a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction.
Add water then it will break apart. The breaking apart happens after you add the water molecule.
-Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond.

Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis.

5

Carbohydrates serve as

fuel and building materials

6

Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

Monosaccharides: single sugars. The simplest carbohydrates.

Disaccharides: two monosaccharides.
Structure- two monosaccharides joined.
A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides.
Function- don't worry about

Polysaccharides: polymers composed of many sugar building blocks.

Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides.

7

Describe the structure and function of a monosaccharide

Structure- molecule formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O (1:2:1 ratio)

Glucose (C6H12O6) is the most common monosaccharide.
Vary in length, location of carbonyl, isomers

Function- major fuel for cells (food, energy). Raw material for building molecules.

When wet (aqueous solution) they form rings, when dry they form straight lines.

8

List the three disaccharides and their component monosaccharides

glucose + fructose= sucrose
glucose + glucose= maltose
glucose + galactose= lactose

9

Describe the specific type of bond that holds together monosaccharides

Monosaccharides are held together by a type of covalent bond called a Glycosidic linkage.

This bond is seen when a disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides.

10

Distinguish between the glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose. Explain why the difference is biologically important.

(((((FINISH ANSWERING THIS ONE!!!))))

Starch- a (alpha) glucose
These are helical

Cellulose- B (beta) glucose
These are straight.
These can form strong building materials for plants.

11

What is the structure and function of starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin?

Starch:
Structure- a polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers
1-4 a (alpha) linkages
A helical shape
(Plants- a (alpha) glucose
Function- plants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids.
(Storage)
Amylose- simple starch. Unbranched.
Amylopectin- complex starch. A few branch points.

Glycogen:
Structure- glycogen is a polysaccharide in animals. All glucose monomers. highly branched.
(Animals- glucose)
Function- humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells. Stores only last 24 hours. This is how we store energy.
(Storage)

Cellulose:
Structure- LIke starch, cellulose is a polymer of glucose, but the glycosidic linkages differ. The difference is based on two ring forms for glucose: alpha (a) and beta (B).
(Plants- B (beta) glucose)
Function- The polysaccharide cellulose is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells. Made up of 100s of glucoses that only plants make. Structural.
(Structure)

Chitin:
Structure- ???
Function- Chitin, another structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton of anthropods. (the crunch sound when step on bugs).
(Structural)

12

Describe the role of symbiosis in cellulose digestion by animals

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13

Lipids are a diverse group of

hydrophobic molecules

14

Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats, phospholipids, and steroids.

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