Chapter 5 and 27 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 and 27 Deck (14)

Macromolecules are polymers, built from



List the four major classes of macromolecules and their monomers

Carbohydrates- Monosaccharides
Lipids- no monomers
Proteins- Amino Acids
Nucleic Acids- Nucleotides


Distinguish between monomers and polymers

A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks.
example: like 4 expo markers being put together and forming a long stick

Monomers are the small building-block molecules that made up a polymer.
Example: One of the expo markers would be a monomer.


Draw diagrams to illustrate condensation (dehydration reaction) and hydrolysis reactions

Dehydration reaction (condensation):
synthesizing a polymer.
This occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss/production of a water molecule.
Building up.
Remove water from something (Dehydrate it) and removing the water will cause things to build up/stick together
-Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond.

Hydrolysis Reactions:
breaking down a polymer.
This is a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction.
Add water then it will break apart. The breaking apart happens after you add the water molecule.
-Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond.

Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis.


Carbohydrates serve as

fuel and building materials


Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

Monosaccharides: single sugars. The simplest carbohydrates.

Disaccharides: two monosaccharides.
Structure- two monosaccharides joined.
A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides.
Function- don't worry about

Polysaccharides: polymers composed of many sugar building blocks.

Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides.


Describe the structure and function of a monosaccharide

Structure- molecule formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O (1:2:1 ratio)

Glucose (C6H12O6) is the most common monosaccharide.
Vary in length, location of carbonyl, isomers

Function- major fuel for cells (food, energy). Raw material for building molecules.

When wet (aqueous solution) they form rings, when dry they form straight lines.


List the three disaccharides and their component monosaccharides

glucose + fructose= sucrose
glucose + glucose= maltose
glucose + galactose= lactose


Describe the specific type of bond that holds together monosaccharides

Monosaccharides are held together by a type of covalent bond called a Glycosidic linkage.

This bond is seen when a disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides.


Distinguish between the glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose. Explain why the difference is biologically important.


Starch- a (alpha) glucose
These are helical

Cellulose- B (beta) glucose
These are straight.
These can form strong building materials for plants.


What is the structure and function of starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin?

Structure- a polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers
1-4 a (alpha) linkages
A helical shape
(Plants- a (alpha) glucose
Function- plants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids.
Amylose- simple starch. Unbranched.
Amylopectin- complex starch. A few branch points.

Structure- glycogen is a polysaccharide in animals. All glucose monomers. highly branched.
(Animals- glucose)
Function- humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells. Stores only last 24 hours. This is how we store energy.

Structure- LIke starch, cellulose is a polymer of glucose, but the glycosidic linkages differ. The difference is based on two ring forms for glucose: alpha (a) and beta (B).
(Plants- B (beta) glucose)
Function- The polysaccharide cellulose is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells. Made up of 100s of glucoses that only plants make. Structural.

Structure- ???
Function- Chitin, another structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton of anthropods. (the crunch sound when step on bugs).


Describe the role of symbiosis in cellulose digestion by animals



Lipids are a diverse group of

hydrophobic molecules


Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats, phospholipids, and steroids.