Unit 2 Exam Flashcards Preview

Biology 1406 > Unit 2 Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 2 Exam Deck (34)

The New Woman

Who: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Margaret Sanger, Emma Goldman, Alice Paul
What: rejection of separate spheres. woman are educated and work more and and work for wages.
When: 1920s
Where: the united states
Why it happened: The old woman was the victorianism, which was separate spheres, and sigmund freud. The new woman rejected the separate spheres because they were more educated now and actually worked and worked for wages. Women also got the right to vote with the 19th amendment in 1920. There was also the rise of feminism at this time with the new woman. They wanted the same rights for women that men had.
Why it is significant: It was the lost generation. There were the flappers, drinkers, smokers, lots of affairs, and shorter skirts at this time with the new woman. Women got the right to vote in 1920.

-charlotte perkins gilman- wanted collective housekeeping. it was a more social thing.
-margaret sanger- birth control
-emma goldman- called marriage prostitution. she can women could have kids without being married.
-alice paul- wanted an equal rights amendment between men and women


Amendment 18

Who: americans. gangsters. al capone.
What: banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. Prohibition
When: 1919 (1920s)
Where: United States
Why it happened: it came about because of anti-german and anti-immigrant sentiment. (cause of world war 1)
Why it is significant: it led to Al capone and the rise of gangsters. They got rich from selling and making alcohol.


Sacco and Vanzetti

Who: Sacco and Vanzetti (anarchists, italian immigrants)
What: A well-known case in which two Italian-American anarchists were accused of robbing and killing paymasters and found guilty and executed for the crime in which there was very little evidence linking them to the particular crime.
When: 1920
Where: Boston
Why it happened: it was known that they were anarchists and that time was known as the red scare, so they were accused and arrested basically because they were anarchists and americans were scared of communists and everything at that time.
Why it is significant: they were found guilty in 1921 and were executed. The unfairness and injustice of the Sacco and Vanzetti case caused worldwide protest. They were convicted only because they were anarchist immigrants. It has set a precedent in the court system.


Ku Klux Klan

Who: white supremacists
What: the revival of the ku klux klan.
When: 1920s
Where: united states
Why it happened: the Universal Negro Improvement Association was made to help african americans. The move "Birth of a Nation" also inspired the revival of the KKK, and was used as a recruiting tool for the KKK.
Why it is significant: by 1944, 4 million people were in the Ku Klux Klan. Their goals were to enforce Jim Crow Laws of the south that they once saw, and stop the success of African Americans.


Muncie, IN

What: "Middletown" America. Ideal American City
When: 1920s
Where: Muncie, IN
Why it happened:
Why it is significant: it represented being an american and the ideal american city.


Herbert Hoover

Who: herbert hoover, president
What: politics of assoicationalism. welfare capitalism-let businesses provide the benefits. The coming of the crash. Hoover was president when the great depression struck, and despite his attempts, the economy steadily worsened.
When: president from 1929-1933
Where: United States
Why it happened: he was president from 1929-1933. the crash black tuesday,happened october 29, 1929. He started the Federal Farm Board (the gov. buy surplus cotton and wheat from farmers). He had public works, and a Reconstruction Finacne corporation (gov. give credit to businesses). During his presidency, farming worsened (drought, dust, heat, grasshoppers), there was despair (11,000 banks failed, $20 billion lost, 13 million unemployed), fear (hoovervilles), and okies (oklahoma dustbowl farmers who went to california to look for jobs)
Why it is significant: while he was president, the economy steadily worsened. Unable to pay rent, many families were evicted from their former homes and forced to crowd into shantytowns called "Hoovervilles" (named after president Herbert Hoover). These areas sprung up from coast to coast, crowded with the homeless who erected shacks out of whatever construction materials they could salvage. Hoover believed that the nationwide associations dominated the countries commerce, and wanted to promote business in any way possible. After winning the Presidential Election of 1928, he promised the American people a New Day, "bright with hope" and optimism. Ironically, during Hoover's presidency the nation experienced the stock market crash crisis and the largest scale Depression to date. Hoover was criticized for his refusal to authorize large-scale relief programs that might have alleviated the suffering, unwillingness to use federal dollars to stimulate the nation's economy, and failure to recognize the Great Depression.


Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Who: he was governor of new york before because president.
When: became president in 1932
Where: United States
Why it happened: He took office after Hoover, who did an awful job as president. He immediately called for change after he became president. He insisted the federal government to play a greater role, supporting direct relief payments for the unemployed, pledged a new deal, and was committed to use the power of the federal government to combat the economic crisis that was destroying the nation. He believed that the solution to the Depression were 3 Rs: relief, recovery, and reform
Why it is significant: he created a bank holiday (which increased people's faith in banks), he did fire side chats (which he projected confidence by sharing information and letting people know that he knew what was going on), he has prohibition repealed in 1933 (he had it taxed to pump more money into the economy). He had the first new deal and second new deal to help fix the economy and everything.
He was elected with over 80% of votes in the 1936 election. The people loved him and his programs.


The New Deal

Who: FDR
What: a series of experimental projects and programs, known collectively as the New Deal, that aimed to restore some measure of dignity and prosperity to many Americans.
When: during FRD's presidency, 1930s. 1933-1934
Where: united states
Why it happened: After hoover's presidency and the crash and great depression, FDR wanted to make a change and fix everything, so he came up with the New Deal to do that.
Why it is significant: They were aimed to restore some measure of dignity and prosperity to many Americans. More than that, Roosevelt’s New Deal permanently changed the federal government's relationship to the U.S. populace.


Alphabet Soup

Who: FDR
What: FDR's New Deal programs have been referred to as alphabet soup.
When: 1930s
Where: united states
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Axis Powers

Who: Benito Mussolini (Italy), Adolf Hitler (Germany), and (Japan)
What: italy- fascism (gov. system led by a dictator with complete power usually associated with nationalism or racism). germany- nazism
When: 1930s, 1940s, world war 2 time
Where: Italy, germany, japan
Why it happened: there was an unbalance of powers. Germany had the Nuremberg laws of 1935 which stripped ethnic jews of their citizenship. racism. and the European and African Invasion in 1934-1936 which was germany trying to spread through europe and africa.
Japan had the invasion of Manchuria in 1931, which was them trying to expand and killed 3000 residents in manchuria. It was nationalism, kill for their country.
Why it is significant: they had a alot of advancement. japan invaded china territory. germany invaded poland. Mussolini and hitler have an alliance in 1936. leads to the world war 2 offically starting in like 1939.


Adolf HItler

Who: head of Germany, dictator
What: believed in nazism. He turned Germany into a powerful war machine and provoked World War II in 1939. Hitler's forces conquered most of Europe before they were defeated in 1945.
When: 1930s and 1940s
Where: germany,
Why it happened: he wanted to be in control and have power over germany and other countries. He didnt like jews, he was a nazi. He did the holocaust.
Why it is significant: A lot of people died unfairly because of him. he killed himself eventually. He invaded czechoslovakia and poland. He has a Non-aggression pact with USSR- which meant that the soviet union would promise not to take aggresive action against germany.


Neutrality Acts

Who: america, fdr
What: Beginning in 1935, lawmakers passed a series of Neutrality Acts that banned travel on belligerents' ships and the sale of arms to countries at war.
When: 1935, 1936, 1937
Where: united states
Why it happened: america was trying to be neutral. but the united states needed to regain foreign markets. but there were wars going on in foreign countries. America wanted to stay neutral so they banned trading and shipping and everything with nations that were at war.
Why it is significant: after world war 2 begins the u.s. they sell nonmilitary products to nations at war if those nations pay with cash and ship it on their own ships. the U.S. lends china some money because they were being invaded by the nations at war. The event revealed the weaknesses of neutrality in a world growing increasingly violent and dangerous.

-The Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibited the export of military goods to belligerents, or nations in armed conflict. Less than five weeks after President Roosevelt signed the bill into law, Italian forces invaded Ethiopia. Because the Neutrality Act did not differentiate between aggressors and victims, the United States could not provide assistance to the Ethiopians, who were virtually defenseless against the mechanized armies of Italy. The event revealed the weaknesses of neutrality in a world growing increasingly violent and dangerous.


Four Freedoms

Who: FDR was president at the time, Americans
What: Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.
When: 1940s, FDRs third term
Where: united states
Why it happened: World war 2 had started.
Why it is significant:


The Lend Lease Program

Who: FDR, United States, Allies
What: Permitted the United States to lend or lease arms and other supplies to the Allies, signifying increasing likelihood of American involvement in World War II.
When: March 1941
Where: U.S,
Why it happened: World war 2 had started and america was started to get involved. So FDR authorized to sell, transfer, exchange, and lend or lease military equipment and other commodities to any country whose defense he deemed vital to the defense of the united states.
Why it is significant: this makes the united states not neutral anymore.
It ends neutrality and germany advances in europe, japan advances in asia, and japan signs military pact with germany and italy in 1930.


Pearl Harbor

Who: Japan, United States
What: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
When: December 7, 1941
Where: Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
Why it happened: japan and the u.s. had supposedly been at peace and discussing peace talks at that time. japan's attack was a surprise attack.
Why it is significant: on december 8, fdr asks congress to declare war on japan. On December 11, 1941, Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
The United States gets involved in the World War 2.


VE Day

Who: U.S. Britain and USSR were allies
What: Victory over Europe. The allies were successful and stopped germany from advancing in 1942-1943.
When: May 8, 1945
Why it happened: The allies were successful at stopping germany from advancing in 1942-1943. D-Day happened on June 6, 1944 which prevented hitler from doing some stuff.
Why it is significant: it was victory over europe. hitler killed himself and his dictator reign was over.
lots of people died. yalta conference happened in feb 1945 to try and decide what europe would look like after the war and what stalin wanted. Stalin thought more of europe should be communist and look like the soviet union. The united nations. communism in the eastern europe. foreshadows the cold war.


Harry Truman

Who: takes FDR's place as president after FDR dies of polio.
What: he doesn't know what to do. the U.S. has an atomic bomb.
When: 1945-
Where: united states
Why it happened: he is told a lot of lives would be saved if he tells about the atomic bomb. he doesnt know what to do. he drops the bomb. He has the truman doctrine in 1947 which says the u.s. must help the people being harrassed and any country facing a communist threat will be aided by the U.S.. He has point 4 plan.
Why it is significant:


Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Who: Truman, United States, Japan
What: U.S. dropped bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
When: August 6th and 9th, 1945
Where: Japan
Why it happened: Truman took office after FDR died and he didn't know what to do. Truman was told that a lot of lives would be saved if he told about the bomb. Told Japan about the bomb but Japan doesn't surrender. So Truman said it was time to use the bomb. Chose Hiroshima because it was a civilian area. It was about morale. 100,000 died. Japan still refused to surrender, so the United States dropped a second bomb on Nagasaki. (Also maybe happened because Japan had attacked Pearl Harbor)
Why it is significant: It led to VJ Day. Bigger government (pentagon created. Government decides who gets money and what it's spent on, etc.) New weapons (atomic bomb, radar, pesticide, penicillin, etc.).


VJ Day

Who: United States, Japan
What: Victory over Japan Day
When: August 14, 1945
Where: u.s. japan
Why it happened: u.s. had dropped atomic bombs on two places in japan. japan finally surrendered.
Why it is significant: japan surrendered. victory over japan. biggest celebration ever in u.s. there is no harmony, just peace.


Bracero Program

Who: mexicans/ mexian americans
What: System agreed to by Mexican and American governments in 1942 under which tens of thousands of Mexicans entered the United States to work temporarily in agricultural jobs in the Southwest; lasted until 1964 and inhibited labor organization among farm workers since braceros could be deported at any time.
When: 1940 -1964
Where: united states.
Why it happened: there was agricultural work that needed to be done and the u.s. was short on labor workers cause of the war and those people wanting to move up and work in industry or other stuff.
Why it is significant: The Braceros’ presence had a significant effect on the business of farming and the culture of the United States. The Bracero program fed the circular migration patterns of Mexicans into the U.S. like 4 million mexicans went over to the u.s. to work during this time.


Zoot Suit Riots

Who: mexican americans
What: The "zoot suit" riots of 1943, in which club-wielding sailors and policemen attacked Mexican-American youths wearing flamboyant clothing on the streets of Los Angeles, illustrated the limits of wartime tolerance.
When: 1943
Where: los angeles, california
Why it happened:
Why it is significant: it has to do with discrimination. foreshadowing of future civil rights act.


Japanese Americans

Who: japanese americans.
What: the executive order 9066 was the internment of japanese americans.
When: feb. 19, 1942.
Where: united states. many concentration camps were in california and arizona.
Why it happened: after pearl harbor was attacked by japan, FDR released the executive order 9066 which was the internment of japanse americans.
Why it is significant: many of them (2/3) were actually american citizens. The 442nd was an all japanse american unit that served in ww2. they were highly decorated. suffered alot of injuries.


Executive Order 9066

Who: FDR, japanese americans
What: Promulgated in February 1942, this ordered the expulsion of all persons of Japanese descent from the West Coast.
When: February 19, 1942
Where: california, arizona, gila river, west coast
Why it happened: japan attacked pearl habor.
Why it is significant: conditions- food differences, cultural differences. it violated their rights and was wrong. the fed gov. decidede it violated their rights so they gave like 20,000 dollars to japanse americans that were still alive that had been stuck in the camps to make up for what had been taken away from them.


Women and War

Who: rosie the riveter, women
What: women worked. women in the military.
When: 1940s, 1950s
Where: united states
Why it happened: war manpower commission- gov. organization to try and figure out how to convince employers to hire women. Rosie the riveter. Middle class mothers. women in the military (WACs, WAVES, WASPs), african american women were hired last, fired first, or not hired at all.
Why it is significant: there was no daycare for kids, no separate bathrooms for women, some had to move. there was the mentality that women just arent supposed to be working. there was an increase in teenage delinquency that was blamed on women. after men come back from war, women were laid off so the men could get jobs back.


Rosie the Riveter

Who: image of female patriot
What: Private advertising celebrated the achievements of Rosie the Riveter, the female industrial laborer depicted as muscular and self-reliant in Norman Rockwell's famous magazine cover.
When: 1940s, 1950s
Where: united states
Why it happened: war was going on, women needed to work and do stuff since men were gone at war
Why it is significant: she is the image of female patriot and gets a lot of stuff going for women


Joseph Stalin

Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Dr. Strangelove

Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Truman Doctrine

Who: truman.
What: President Harry S. Truman's program announced in 1947 of aid to European countries, particularly Greece and Turkey, threatened by communism.
When: 1947ish
Where: u.s.
Why it happened: the cold war was heating up. the other nations were doing a bunch of stuff and trying to spread communism.
Why it is significant: trying to keep communism contained. if one country falls to communism, the rest will.



Who: u.s., ussr, foreign nations
What: The United States commitment to preventing any further expansion of Soviet power.
When: 1940s, 1950s
Where: u.s.
Why it happened: ussr was trying to spread communism
Why it is significant:


Domino Effect

What: if one country falls to communism, the rest wil. keep greece and germany from falling to communism.
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Point 4 Plan

Who: truman
What: must help underdeveloped countries decide against communism. technological aid for underdeveloped countries.
Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


The Korean War

Who: communist north korea vs. anti-communist south korea.
What: north invades south in 1950
When: 1950s
Where: korea
Why it happened: north wants a unified korea. u.s. sees this as a test of containment. u.s. sends in general mcarthur into north korea to try and get them to stop. china feels threatened by u,s, and steps in to help north korea and push u.s. south.
Why it is significant: north and south korea sign armistice in 1953 but it didnt actually end it all with them. The u.s. military doubles in size. u.s. increases spending on defense military budget. u.s. builds more atomic bombs. no unified korea. u.s. society becomes more conservative


Duck and Cover

Why it happened:
Why it is significant:


Dorothea Lange

((this one should be in the beginning))

Why it happened:
Why it is significant: