Flashcards in CONCEPT 1: GENTLE HEAT PREVENTS OVERCOOKING Deck (53):
Do smaller molecules move faster than larger ones?
Which molecules are the smallest: water, fat or protein?
Common forms of radiation in cooking.
Grilling, broiling, microwave.
Why is grilling considered radiation?
It uses thermal radiation (electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter) to cook food.
Does the outside of food always cook faster than the inside?
The transfer of heat between two parts of a stationary system, caused by a temperature difference between the parts.
The transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of the heated parts of a liquid or gas; boiling water or frying oil, air in the oven.
The transfer of heat by high-energy waves emitted from a remote object; sun on the surface of the earth.
What happens if cooking temp is too high?
Outer layers may become overcooked by the time conduction moves the heat toward the center of food; external moisture will evaporate.
How do you help food retain more moisture regarding heat?
A smaller temperature difference within the food will help the exterior retain more moisture.
TEST KITCHEN: Slow roasted beef experiment (3 different temp probes).
Two roasts, one at 250º (tender and more juicy - lost only 9.4% original weight) and the other 450º (chalky and dry with nicer crust - lost 24.2%).
Why did the roasts (250º and 450º) lose different amounts of moisture?
Higher temperatures meant faster moving water molecules and greater evaporation.
On a whole rib roasts (aka prime rib), which ribs does it consist of?
Ribs 6 through 12
What do butchers tend to do with rib roasts?
Cut them in half (the cut further back is less fatty).
What is the cut further back (less fatty) on a rib roast called?
First cut, loin end, or sometimes the small end because the meat and ribs get larger as they move toward the shoulder.
Is a supermarket ham fully cooked?
Difference between bone-in and boneless supermarket hams.
Bone-in hams with natural juices are the least processed of all options at the supermarket. Boneless hams contain several muscles that have been pressed together to look like ham.
Whats bad about boneless ham?
All the manipulation compromises the muscle structure, making them less able to hold on to natural juices. And while "water-added" ham might sound juicier, they taste awful and shed all that extra water in the oven.
How should ham be prepared for roasting?
Give it a warm bath. Soaking the wrapped ham in warm water for 90 minutes raises the internal temperature to about 60ºF and cuts total roasting time by about an hour. Less time in the oven mean less moisture loss.
What temperature ham should be served?
110 to 120 degrees
Trick to roasting ham after warming.
Bake in an oven bag and let rest.
At what temp do egg white start to coagulate?
140 to 150 degrees
At what temp do egg yolks turn from liquid to solid?
150 to 160 degrees
When talking about heat, how should shrimp and eggs be cooked? Why?
Low and slow because the window between perfection and overdone is too small. Outer layers of the shrimp and eggs are cooking much faster than the inner layers.
How many hard boiled eggs should you make at a time?
Enough to cover a single layer of your pan.
Are fresh eggs better for hard boiled? Why?
YES. As an egg ages, the cord-like strands that center the yolk weaken. If this happens, the yolk can end up close to the outer wall of the hard-cooked egg, making the white likely to tear when removing the yolk.
Cooking technique for hard-boiled eggs.
Add a single layer of eggs to your pan; cover with 1 inch of water; bring to a boil over high heat; remove pan from heat, cover, and let sit for 10 minutes; pour off water and move pan to gently crack egg shells; transfer eggs to ice-water for 5 minutes.
How do you perfectly center a hard boiled egg?
Place egg carton on its side the day before cooking.
How do you create a smoother texture with egg yolks?
Rice them with a fine sieve.
Classic method of hard-boiling eggs.
Cooking eggs in a pot of boiling water for a precise period of time.
Why is the classic method of hard-boiling eggs a crapshoot?
You can't poke the egg with an instant-read thermometer or account for variations in heat output of stoves or conductivity of pans or the different sizes of eggs.
How can you tell a hard-boiled egg was overcooked?
A green tinge on the yolk.
How can you tell a hard-boiled egg was undercooked?
Dark orange yolk that's soft in spots.
How to you stop a hard-boiled egg white from adhering to the shell? Why does this process work?
Shocking egg in ice water quickly halts the albumin bonding process and causes the protein to shrink and pull away from the shell.
Why do hard-boiled egg white adhere to egg shells?
As an egg cooks, the layers of albumin that's closest to the outer shell will slowly bond.
Regarding albumin, why is leaving hard-cooked eggs to cool at room temp or under running water a bad idea?
A hard-cooked egg left at room temp or even under cold running water will cool relatively slow, allowing albumin plenty of time to form a strong bond.
What is the green ring in overcooked eggs caused by?
Excessive or prolonged heat; the iron in the yolk is reacting with the sulfur compounds in the white.
Why is adding shrimp at the outset of a cooking liquid better than after it's heated?
One, once proteins have shrunk there's less room for flavor molecules to be absorbed - the shrimp won't pick up much flavor; two, a more consistent thermal trip - protein will lose less moisture when they aren't shocked from drastic change in temp.
Temperature at which proteins in shrimp start to shrink and toughen.
Temperature at which shrimp becomes pleasantly chewy but not tough.
What happens when you boil shrimp?
You guarantee the internal temp will exceed 140ºF and become rubbery.
Technique for cooking shrimp in liquid.
Add shrimp in cold water w/other flavors; bring stove to medium heat; stir until pink, firm to the touch and centers are no longer translucent; 8-10 minutes or longer if larger (water should be 165º); remove from heat and let sit 2 minutes; immediately transfer shrimp to ice bath about 3 minutes; pat dry.
Should you boil shrimp?
Shrimp: frozen or thawed? Why?
Because nearly all shrimp are frozen at sea, you don't know when the "fresh" shrimp were thawed (be friendly w/the fishmonger). The flavor and texture of thawed shrimp deteriorate after a few days, so you're better off buying frozen.
What happens to all shrimp after they're caught?
They're almost all frozen on the boat.
Shrimp: peeled or unpeeled? Why?
Unpeeled. Someone had to thaw the shrimp for peeling; refreezing bangs up the shrimp.
Three characteristics of shrimp you should buy.
Frozen, unpeeled and untreated
What is STPP?
Why check ingredients of frozen shrimp?
Frozen shrimp are often treated or enhanced with additives to prevent darkening or to counter "drip loss." And shrimp that have been treated have a strange translucency and unpleasant texture.
Common additives used on shrimp to prevent darkening.
STPP, sodium metabisulfate or salt.
What happens to color of aging shrimp?
They become darker.
What is "drip loss?"
The amount of moisture a shrimp loses as it's thawed.