Flashcards in CONCEPT 13: SALTY MARINADES WORK BEST Deck (94):
What ingredient in marinades turns a tough cut tender?
What is a marinade?
Seasoned, traditionally acidic liquid in which we soak meat before and sometimes after cooking.
The effectiveness of a marinade relies on what ingredient?
As in a brine, salt in a marinade affects meat in what four ways?
Restructures proteins molecules in meat, creating gaps that fill with water to increase juiciness, as well as loosening the bundles of muscle fibers, making them more tender and easier to bite through and chew. In addition, the salt dissolves some muscle proteins, which act like a sponge to soak up and hold moisture within the gaps. Salt also enhances the meat, enhancing inherent flavors. Finally, osomosis causes water to move across cell walls from areas with a lower concentration of dissolved substances (marinade) to higher (the meat).
So much salt is used in a proper marinade that you could call it what?
Along with salt, why is it important to use ample amounts of potent flavors in a marinade?
In a marinade, the salt will bind to the muscle proteins in meat, increasing the electrical charge of these protein and making them less attractive to electrically neutral flavor molecules. So whatever flavors do enter the meat, we want them to pack a punch.
Are most flavor molecules in herbs and spices fat or water-soluble?
For a marinade, why is it important to know that most herbs and spices are fat soluble?
The water in meat repels fat-soluble flavors. This means that there is very little flavor contribution from herbs and spices in marinades except on the surface of meat, and we must use as many water-soluble flavors as possible.
Name two foods whose characteristic flavor compounds are water-soluble.
Onions and garlic.
What flavor "potentiators" are available for marinades?
Water-soluble glutamates, like those found in soy sauce, enter meat in a fashion similar to salt.
Are glutamates a salt?
Although categorized as salt, glutamates are not the same as sodium chloride and, therefore, play no role in holding moisture; glutamates provide umami flavor only.
Is sodium chloride present in soy sauce?
What is the benefit of oil in a marinade?
It dissolves some of the fat-soluble flavors and helps them to cling to the meat's surface and even penetrate exposed fat.
What notable ingredient should you leave out of a marinade?
What do acids do to meat?
Commonly thought to tenderize, acids make meat mushy.
Why don't acids work in marinades?
To tenderize meat, you need to break down muscle fiber and collagen, the connective tissue that make meat tough, thus increasing the meat's ability to retain moisture and become easier to chew.
Ingredient such as citrus juice, vinegar, yogurt, buttermilk and wine do what to meat?
They weaken muscle tissue but their impact is confined to the meat's surface. And, if left too long, will turn the outer layer mushy, not tender.
TEST KITCHEN: THE SHORT JOURNEY OF A MARINADE
Different marinades based with soy, yogurt, red wine, and lemon/garlic were all made without added salt. A majority of tasters found little to no difference among various chicken breasts. However, most tasters found the soy to be juicier than other samples. The chicken, however, didn't absorb any of the dark-colored flavor compounds deeper than a few millimeters.
What is the "salting out" effect?
A high concentration of salt forces even water-soluble out of the water into the oil. The oil in that mix distribute those flavors evenly over the flesh (not just parts in direct contact with the WSFC, garlic in this case).
What is a trivet?
Object placed between a serving dish or bowl, and a dining table, usually to protect the table from heat or water damage.
Quick marinade for 1 pound of shrimp using oil, garlic and sat.
2 minced garlic cloves, 2 tbsp oil, 1 tsp salt for 30 minutes at room temp.
Why do chiles have a distinct advantage in pastes and rubs?
The principal oil-soluble pungent flavor compounds in chiles are not as volatile as those in herbs and spices, so they evaporate less quickly from the surface of hot meat and seafood.
Best way to cook shrimp in a skillet.
Low and slow guarantees tender, well-cooked shrimp.
Why does cooking shrimp low and slow in a skillet work so well?
You can cook the shrimp in a single layer, only flipping them once. Higher heat would make it almost impossible to cook a single layer of shrimp without some of them becoming too tough. It also helps keep more volatile flavor compounds stay on the shrimp rather than evaporate in the air.
What besides salt, what is another important component in marinades?
Why would omitting oil from a salt and garlic marinade reduce flavor?
Oil protects and stabilizes allicin, which quickly degrades into less flavorful compounds when exposed to air. Once in oil, allicin dissolves and is protected from air. Oil also coats the product and spreads flavor evenly.
What is allicin?
The compound in garlic responsible for its flavor.
How is allicin produced?
When garlic is cut or crushed.
Why is allicin so unique with regards to marinading?
It is one of those unique small molecules that is soluble in both oil and water. Therefore, allowing it to migrate into a meat along with water from the marinade.
What is meat immersed in when marinading?
Solution of water, flavor compounds, fat and salt.
What are two more names for broad bean chili paste?
Chili bean sauce and horse bean chili paste.
In sichuan peppercorns, what provides the aromatic, gently-floral fragrance and notable numbing effect on the tongue?
Explain the steps for cooking a simple long-grained white rice.
Cook rice in small amount of fat until chalky and opaque, 1 to 3 minutes. Add water and salt, bring to boil, reduce to simmer and cover until liquid evaporates.
Is it better to use a skillet or wok on a Western stove? Why?
The wok is traditionally shaped with a conical bottom designed for pit-style stoves where flames come in contact with both sides and bottom of the pan. When a wok is placed on a Western stove, heat does not reach the sides. A skillet comes in contact with more of the heat allowing it to grow very hot; more heat means increased evaporation.
When making stir-fry why do you add shrimp in at a different time than pork, beff or chicken?
The different muscle structure of shrimp requires cooking to an internal temperature about 20 degrees less than meat to avoid overcooking.
What is better for stir-fry shrimp, a heavily soy-based sauce or sweeter, spicier sauces flavored with garlic and chiles?
Sweeter of spicier sauces with garlic and chiles are better suited and reduce to a consistency that tightly adheres to the shellfish.
Explain the different steps when making a beef stir-fry and a shrimp stir-fry.
Traditionally, meat is cooked first to create a nice caramelization and removed until the end. With shrimp, you cooked the vegetables first and remove them before adding the shrimp. This ensures your shrimp aren't overcooked.
Another name for steak tips.
How how steak tips sold?
Whole steak, cubes and strips.
When making beef stroganoff is it better to cook the entire steak as a whole or cut? Why?
Pan-roasting the meat in larger pieces develops a rich flavor, and letting it rest before cutting it into strips preserves its juiciness.
What does sour cream add to beef stroganoff?
Body and tang.
What cut is traditionally used for beef stroganoff?
Russian Czars preferred tenderloin.
Why is soy sauce a good marinade just by itself?
Soy sauce is so salty it works like a brine, breaking down proteins in meat and helping it to retain more juices, as well as loosening the bundles of muscle fiber, making them easier to chew.
In the beef stroganoff recipe what technique was executed to help the soy sauce penetrate faster and make meat more tender?
Fork was used to stab the meat 10 to 12 times.
For mushrooms, whats a good technique used to reduce cooking time in a pan?
Microwave mushrooms and remove pooled moisture from the bottom.
What is blooming?
To soften gelatin in cool liquid before using in the dish you are making.
Is blooming important?
Blooming gelatin is a step integral to ensuring the smooth texture of a finished product.
Can you bloom gelation in any liquid? Why or why not?
You can bloom gelatin in just about any liquid. Avoid the fresh juices of tropical fruits such as papaya, kiwi, mango, and pineapple as they contain an enzyme that will eat the gelatin. Pasteurizing kills the enzymes in these fruits, so canned or frozen juices are fine.
Why do you add sour cream at the end of beef stroganoff?
The acidity of the sour cream causes its casein proteins to become so unstable that exposure to even a little heat makes them clump. For this reason, temper the sour cream by adding it when the sauce is off the heat.
The name for many Moroccan stews.
What is tagine?
Historically a Berber dish from North Africa that is named after the special earthenware pot in which it is cooked. Typically, it's a rich stew of meat, chicken, or fish, and most often includes vegetables or fruit. Vegetables can also be cooked alone.
Name three dishes that use yogurt or sour cream to finish.
Beef stroganoff, tagine and chicken paprikash.
Which dairy product doesn't curdle when exposed to heat: yogurt, sour cream and crème fraîche? Why?
Crème fraîche has a greater amount of butter fat that protects against this process by more thoroughly coating the proteins and preventing them from binding together. Plus, with more fat, crème fraîche has far fewer proteins to bind together in the first place.
Percentage of butterfat in crème fraîche.
30 to 40%
Percentage of butterfat in sour cream.
18 to 20%
Percentage of butterfat in yogurt.
Does crème fraîche reheat well?
Yes, making it a great substitute for sour cream and yogurt.
When does curdling occur in dairy?
When excessive heat causes the whey proteins to denature (unfold) and bind with casein proteins, forming clumps of larger proteins.
Most traditional Mexican recipes call for what type of meat when making tacos?
Skirt or flank steak
Do skirt and flank steak come from the cows belly?
Where does blade steak come from?
Where do steak tips come from?
Sirloin of the animal but can be cut from others too.
What are sirloin steak tips sometimes labeled?
Do salt and sodium glutamates (naturally occurring flavor enhancers found in many foods) penetrate meat in marinades?
What do many commercial broths contain that has two kinds of flavor enhancers? What are the flavor enhancers?
Yeast extract contains glutamates and nucleotides.
What do nucleotides work with to enhance flavor? How much is it enhanced?
Naturally occurring glutamates to ramp up savory taste by as much as 20-fold.
Can beef labeled "steak tips" be cut from various muscles of the cow?
Yes, they can be cut into cubes, strips or steaks.
Are sirloin tips latitudinally or longitudinally grained?
When pre and post-marinating should you flip the meat halfway through? Why?
Yes, it ensures even marination.
Difference between marinade and marinate?
Marinade is a noun while marinate is a verb.
Can you pre and post-marinade meat?
Yes, just let it rest is the reserved juices of the marinade that were put aside; don't use marinade from raw meat.
Do looser-textured skirt, flank and sirloin tip steaks absorb marinade better than thicker cut rib-eye, strip and blade steaks?
Why is a good idea to add acid is a post-marinade?
It can no longer do any harm at the end and imparts great flavor.
After cooking, why would you douce a steak in the marinade before cutting?
If we slice the beef before its second round of marination the flavors can be too intense.
Is marinating chicken breasts in commercial salad dressing a bad idea? Why?
Yes, they are laden with acid, sweeteners, stabilizers and gums; often imparts off flavors.
Is it better to cook chicken breasts on the cooler of hotter part of the grill first? Why?
Cooking on the cooler side first to 140º stops shoe leather chicken and finishing on the hot side gives it added caramelization while maintaing moisture.
Does soaking chicken breast in a marinade after cooking turn the poultry white?
Only if you're using an acid like lemon juice.
How do you keep tortillas warm?
Wrap in foil or kitchen towel.
Name five of the ingredients that make up Worcestershire sauce.
Anchovies, tamarind, onion, garlic and molasses.
What helps round out a salt marinade?
Is it always bad to use acid in a pre-marinade?
No, chicken fajitas get a nice tang from a 15-minute acid marinade but shouldn't go longer or you risk mushy meat.
Do protein molecules usually contain many positive and negative electrical charges?
What determines how protein interact with each other?
Their electrical charges.
What causes protein molecules to repel each other?
More positive or negative charges keep them far apart.
What is IEP?
Isoelectric point is the pH at which a particular molecule or surface carries no net electrical charge; they are balanced.
What happens when proteins hit the isoelectric point?
They pack closer together, squeezing out any excess liquid.
What causes proteins to reach the IEP?
Are most chicken proteins slightly acidic? What's their natural PH?
Yes, they usually have a pH between 6.0 and 6.5.
At what pH does the IEP of all protein occur?
If acid is used in small amounts for short periods of time will it affect meat in a marinade?
With small proportions and limited time a meats pH won't drop very far causing the IEP to squeeze out moisture from the proteins.
What does buttermilk contain that activates cathepsin enzymes in meat?
Why do the acids in wine and vinegar have a negative effect on proteins but lactic acid doesn't?
Strong acids break down so many proteins that they turn meat mushy but lactic acid is too weak to have this effect.
How does baking powder help to create a lighter fried chicken?
As the chicken fries, baking powder releases carbon dioxide, leavening the crust and increasing its surface area, keeping it light and crisp.