Flashcards in CHAPTER 39: REST DOUGHS AND TRIM KNEADING TIME Deck (49):
What happens if you knead a dough too much?
It's robbed of flavor and alters its texture.
Ultimate goal of making bread dough.
To really understand gluten, what two proteins in flour must you know?
Glutenin and gliadin.
Describe glutenin. What does it provide for dough?
A very large, loosely coiled protein that provides most of the strength and elasticity of the dough, allowing it to bounce back after it has been stretched.
Describe gliadin. What does it provide for dough?
A tightly coiled sphere that is much smaller than glutenin and provides dough's strength.
When water and flour first mix, what do glutenin and gliadin form?
A disorganized matrix of gluten that is initially very week.
What needs to happen with proteins in order to strengthen the initial matrix of weak gluten?
The proteins must be aligned next to each other so they can better link together; imagine the proteins as coiled up balls of yarn you are trying to tie together into one longer piece, which will be sewed together in a wider sheet.
Is it possible to tie proteins together in their coiled state? How do you accomplish this?
No, you must first straighten them out - accomplished by kneading.
As the matrix of proteins are kneaded, disorganized weaker bonds are pulled apart and reattached into straight, strong, orderly sheets of ______.
What happens to bread if gluten network isn't strong enough?
Loaves spread sideways instead of rising up.
Is too much kneading counterproductive? What color does the dough turn?
Yes, over kneading causes the dough to become warm and turn from wheaty tan color to a grayish white, producing loaves with a sickly pallor and expired flavors.
Are over mixing and overheating difficult to do by hand?
Yes, but easy when using an electric mixer.
How does a dough hook ruin final product if it over kneads?
The action of a dough hook creates friction and also kneads excessive air into the dough, bleaching it of flavor and color in a process call oxidation.
When properly kneaded, how should dough look and feel?
Smooth with a shiny appearance. If you pull the dough, it should feel very stretchy and quickly spring back into place.
What is autolyse?
A technique in which flour and water are first mixed together and the allowed to rest before being kneaded.
Is yeast traditionally added with water and flour in the beginning of autolyse?
Yeast is not traditional part of autolyse; test kitchen finds that early addition does not make a significant change.
Who was autolyse developed by?
French bread making authority Raymond Calvel in the 1970s.
Does autolyse make a significant difference in both the flavor and structure of many breads? Explain.
Yes, less time in the stand mixture means a chewier product and/or better rise because protein networks aren't torn apart from excess mixing.
When does autolyse occur?
After the random matrix of proteins has come together, but before sheets of gluten have formed and aligned.
What is happening during autolyse at a molecular level?
While the mixture rests, naturally occurring enzymes (known as proteases) break down the disorganized bonds of gluten, acting like scissors, cutting the coiled-up proteins into smaller segments that are easier to straighten and align during kneading. This is why dough that has undergone autolyse requires much less kneading than freshly made dough; the gluten is positioned to form a stronger, more organized network very quickly.
Describe effects of hand-kneading versus machine-kneading on dough.
Machine kneading is rougher; it links gluten together only to tear them apart. Hand kneading is gentler, producing gluten that, once formed, stays together, which ultimately leads to chewier texture.
Are the differences between hand-kneading and machine-kneading drastically different?
No, keep your stand mixer (use low speeds).
What's the risk of hand-kneading?
Adding too much flour while it's on the counter.
Should salt be added during autolyse?
No, hold it until you finish mixing.
TEST KITCHEN: WATER, YEAST, FLOUR AND SALT WERE ADDED AND KNEADED WITH DOUGH HOOK UNTIL COMPLETELY FREE OF THE BOWL. FOR THE 2ND, WATER, FLOUR AND YEAST WERE WERE MIXED UNTIL JUST COMBINED AND RESTED FOR 20 MINUTES BEFORE ADDING SALT AND KNEADING.
Doughs given a 20 minutes respite averaged 5 minutes less kneading (about 10 minutes versus more than 15) to clear the bowl. This translated into bread with better crumb color, aroma, and wheat flavor.
What is autolyse called in America?
What does a dough that was just barely mixed look like (one word)?
What could you use instead of a baking stone?
Turn over a preheated, rimmed baking sheet.
What flavor does replacing bread flour with whole wheat flour create?
A nuttier flavor.
Do olives and dough mix together easily?
No, it's best to add them before the first rise--much like a cinnamon roll.
Does rosemary behave differently when baked in bread?
Yes, its flavor is fleeting.
How long should you allow autolyse to take place?
Does turning the dough during the first rise dramatically improve its elasticity and strength?
Yes, which results in larger holes and heartier chew; don't punch the dough!
What is the point of "slash and spray?"
Slashing the risen loaf with a sharp knife or razor allows the crust to expand, preventing the bread from splitting in the oven. Misting the loaf right before it goes in the oven delays the crust from forming, allowing the bread to fully expand without tearing or splitting.
Why is salt an important component of bread dough?
It strengthens gluten to help form chewy bread.
TEST KITCHEN: TWO DOUGHS, ONE WITH SALT ADDED IN THE BEGINNING AND THE OTHER 15 MINUTES LATER.
Briefly omitting the salt hastened gluten development by an hour. After just 15 minutes, the unsalted was pliant and smooth, while salted dough was stiff and gluey.
Why should salt be after autolyse is over?
Salt inhibits both the ability of flour to absorb water and the activity of the enzymes that break down proteins to begin the process of forming gluten. If allowed to rest without salt, the flour is able to get a jump start on gluten development by absorbing as much water as it can and letting enzymes work sooner to develop gluten networks.
What is the point of "punching down" the dough between its first and second rises?
This process exposes the yeast to new food sources, which keeps it going strong longer.
Why does punching the dough between rises make a good sandwich bread?
Punching also "degasses" the bread, resulting in a loaf with a fairly fine crumb--perfect for sandwich bread, but not rustic loaf.
What does turning the dough mean?
Gently folding it over onto itself between the first and second rises.
Why is turning the dough better for rustic breads?
It reactivates the yeast without pressing out as much air; creates coarser crumb with better chew.
Does more water mean and airier crumb?
For a shatteringly crisp crust, what did test kitchen do for their dinner rolls?
Started the oven on high temperature, then reduced the heat to finish them.
Benefits of starting a dough off on high heat, then turning it down.
A crisp crust and boosting the "oven spring" (the rise that yeasted dough experiences when it first hits the heat of the oven), so the crumb is ever airier than before.
Does baking rolls in a hot oven mean they will rise higher?
Should you freeze dough just after mixing?
Freezing dough just after mixing kills too many of the yeast cells before they have a chance to ferment. In addition, freezing before the first rise reduced gluten development, so loaf didn't have enough structure to fully expand. The result: a small, squat loaf with bland flavor.
Should you freeze dough after the second rise?
Dough frozen after the second rise was over proofed. As the already fully risen dough slowly thawed, the random remaining viable yeast cells continued to produce gas in some parts of the dough but not in the others, weakening this structure. The result: a misshapen loaf that collapsed during baking.