CONCEPT 18: FAT MAKES EGGS TENDER Flashcards Preview

THE SCIENCE OF GOOD COOKING > CONCEPT 18: FAT MAKES EGGS TENDER > Flashcards

Flashcards in CONCEPT 18: FAT MAKES EGGS TENDER Deck (84):
1

Describe the perfectly cooked eggs texture.

Tender and soft.

2

Cooking causes egg proteins to do what?

Denature (unfold) and form a latticed gel.

3

Are cooked eggs a solid or semisolid?

Semisolid

4

What explains how eggs thicken custards, puddings and sauces?

Coagulation

5

Distinct elements of an egg.

Whites and yolks.

6

Whites represent how much of the eggs total volume?

2/3

7

% of water, protein and other elements in egg whites.

88% water, 11% protein and 1% minerals and carbohydrates.

8

% of fat and related elements in yolk.

34%

9

% of water in a yolk.

50%

10

% of protein in egg yolk.

16%

11

What happens to water in eggs when heated?

Turns to steam.

12

Are the heated proteins of egg able to hold water?

Yes, this helps makes them tender and fluffy.

13

What happens to moisture when you overcooked eggs?

The latticed network of proteins form very tight bonds that squeeze out too much liquid.

14

Why do most scrambled egg recipes call for dairy? What does it do?

Fat in milk coats proteins and slows down the coagulation process.

15

Is the dairy only used for fat?

No, water in the dairy provides additional moisture.

16

How does the moisture from dairy help create a lighter, more tender egg?

Additional moisture also means more steam, which translates into fluffier scrambled eggs.

17

While scrambled eggs should be more fluffy, an omelet should be...

More compact.

18

Should milk be used to make better omelets? Why?

No, adding dairy means extra liquid that prolongs cooking time and toughens omelet.

19

What should be used in place of milk for an omelet? Why?

Small cubes of butter contain lots of fat and very little liquid.

20

Why is frozen butter better than room temp?

It disperses more evenly throughout the egg while cooking.

21

Describe uncooked egg proteins in a word.

Globular

22

TEST KITCHEN: OMELET COOKED WITH BUTTER AND WITHOUT.

Buttered omelets were crushed by a 2-pound sinker while no butter held their structure.

23

Should you salt eggs before or after scrambling? Why?

Adding salt affects the electrical charge on protein molecules in eggs, reducing tendency of the proteins to bond with each other. A weaker protein network means eggs are less likely to over coagulate.

24

Does adding salt an hour before cooking make eggs taste better?

Test kitchen stated, "they were nearly identical to eggs salted just before cooking."

25

How did eggs salted after cooking taste?

Firm and rubbery.

26

Dairy to egg ratio.

1 tbsp per 2 eggs.

27

Half-and-half substitute

2 tsp whole milk to 1 tsp heavy cream.

28

Is whipping eggs before cooking?

No, over-beating causes premature coagulation of egg proteins and will turn out tough. It also invites unwanted air bubbles to the party; could cause uneven cooking.

29

Best way to beat scrambled eggs?

Lightly with a fork until large bubbles form.

30

What is weeping?

The layer of moisture that sometimes forms between a meringue and a pie filling.

31

What % of half-and-half is water?

80%

32

How does the water in HNH help eggs?

It interrupts the protein network and dilutes the molecules, thereby raising the temperature at which eggs coagulate; provides a safety net for over-cooking. Also adds lift as it evaporates (just like in bread).

33

Why do you add extra egg yolk?

Boost egg flavor and minimize dairy tones.

34

Ratio of egg yolk to eggs. Butter?

1 yolk per 2 whole eggs, 1/4 tsp butter.

35

Does pan size matter?

Yes, large skillets make the eggs spread out and overcook; smaller pan forces you to mound eggs which straps steam.

36

Should you cook low and slow? Why?

No, getting the pan hot is crucial for generating steam that creates moist, puffy eggs.

37

Good technique for cooking eggs.

Dual-heat method cooks eggs at medium heat first, scraping eggs with a spatula to form large curds until spatula leave a trail in pan with minimal raw egg filling. Turn to low and finish by folding.

38

How do you stop added ingredients from making eggs weep?

Precook all add-ins to reduce moisture or render fat.

39

When precooking vegetables and sausage, what's a good idea to keep in mind?

Use pork fat to sauté vegetables and boost flavor.

40

Why would you stir eggs use chopsticks, bamboo skewers or the back of a wooden spoon? Why not a fork?

Stirring the eggs as they set breaks the coagulating eggs into smaller curds that produce a more fine and silky texture. Forks are best but scratch the non-stick surface.

41

What does a french omelet look like?

Rolled into a cylinder.

42

Best way to roll a french omelet?

Place on parchment or paper towel and roll with your fingers.

43

Should residual heat be used to finish an omelet? Why?

Yes, is gently cooks the eggs through and helps you avoid burning the bottom.

44

How can the risk of salmonella be reduced in eggs?

Buying pasteurized eggs or heating to 160 degrees.

45

The Egg Safety Center estimates how many eggs are contaminated with salmonella bacteria?

1 in every 10,000 - 20,000 eggs.

46

Where does salmonella bacteria reside?

It can be inside or outside the egg; depends whether or not hen was infected.

47

What should be noted about a majority of the pasteurized eggs in the U.S.?

They are liquid eggs that have already been removed from the shell.

48

Do pasteurized eggs have a slightly different appearance and consistency?

Yes

49

How should you preheat your pan for an omelet? Why?

On low heat for 10 minutes to ensure a uniformly golden and evenly cooked exterior.

50

What's the issue when heating a skillet on the gas stove with medium heat?

High flames lick up the sides and cause hot spots, leading to brown splotches on your omelet.

51

Why do electric stoves hold an advantage over gas when heating pans?

They don't produce hot spots.

52

What other advantage does preheating skillet with a low temperature provide?

A wider window for adding your eggs.

53

How long does it take high heat to go from 250 to 300?

30 seconds

54

EGG 101: Name 6 parts of the egg.

Vitelline, chalazae, air cell, yolk, white, shell

55

Pronounce chalazae.

kuh-ley-zuh

56

VITELLINE (vi-tel-in)

This membrane contains and protects the yolk. It weakens as the egg ages, causing the yolk to break more easily.

57

Why are fresh eggs easier to separate than older ones?

The vitelline is weaker.

58

YOLK

Most of the eggs' vitamins and minerals, as well as all of the fat and half the protein, are found in the yolk.

59

The yolk's emulsifying agent that's responsible for holding together mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.

Lecithin

60

What temperature is best for separating eggs?

Cold temperatures mean a firmer yolk that is less likely to break and easily separated.

61

AIR CELL

Void at the wide end of the egg results from contraction as the interior cools after the egg is laid. This space increases in size as the egg ages and moisture inside the egg evaporates through the shell.

62

CHALAZAE

Whitish cords that extend from each pole end and center the yolk. As an egg ages, chalazae weaken and the yolk can become off center.

63

Why do chefs often strain sauces and custards involving eggs?

So the chalazae don't mar their texture and appearance.

64

SHELL

The shell and inner membrane keep the contents in place and bacteria out. The shell is permeable and over time the contents of an egg can evaporate.

65

Should you ever use an egg with a cracked or split shell?

NO

66

WHITE

Also called albumin, is made of protein and water that's divided into thick and thin layers, with the thickest layer closest to the yolk. A slight cloudiness indicates extreme freshness. As an egg ages, the white becomes thinner and clearer.

67

Are egg cartons marked with a sell-by date and pack date?

Yes

68

Describe the pack date for egg cartons.

The day eggs were graded and packed, which is generally within a week of being laid but, legally, may be as much as 30 days later.

69

Where is the pack date located?

Printed on egg cartons as a three-number code just below the sell-by date.

70

Explain the pack date three-number code.

It runs consecutively from 001, for January 1, to 365, for December 31.

71

What is the sell-by date?

A legal limit until which eggs may be sold and is within 30 days of the pack date.

72

Were two, three and four-month-old eggs still palatable?

Two and three were but four had a loose white and the egg tasted of refrigerator.

73

Where are different colored eggs from?

A shell's hue depends on the breed of chicken. Run-of-the-mill Leghorn chickens produce white; Brown-feathered boards, such as Rhode Island Reds, produce café au laid-colored eggs.

74

Do different colored eggs taste different?

No effect on flavor or nutritional value was found.

75

FARM FRESH VS ORGANIC EGGS

In taste tests, farm-fresh were standout. Organic followed in second, while hens raised vegetarian were third and supermarket last.

76

Do farm-fresh eggs make a big difference in all dishes?

Easily detected in egg based dishes but not cookies or cakes.

77

Describe a farm-fresh egg.

Large, bright orange yolks that sat high above the comparatively small whites; their flavor is rich and complex.

78

APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF VARIOUS EGG SIZES

Medium: 1.75 ounces
Large: 2.00 ounces
Extra-large: 2.25 ounces
Jumbo: 2.50 ounces

79

Should eggs be stored on the egg shelf? Why?

No, they should be stored on the shelf, where the temperature is below 40 degrees; average door temp is closer to 45.

80

Why should eggs be stored in their cartons?

Because eggs are permeable, the extra humidity--ideally between 70 and 80%--slows down evaporation of eggs' contents.

81

Should egg whites be frozen?

Depends, their rising properties are compromised but can be used for recipes that don't require whipping; meringues and angel food cake baked up deflated and gummy.

82

Can yolks be stored in the freezer?

No, water forms ice crystals that disrupt protein networks.

83

How can you store egg yolks?

Adding sugar syrup (2 parts sugar, 1 part water) allows yolk to be frozen.

84

How much sugar syrup is needed to freeze egg yolks?

1/4 tsp per yolk.

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