CONCEPT 3: RESTING MEATS MAXIMIZES JUICES Flashcards Preview

THE SCIENCE OF GOOD COOKING > CONCEPT 3: RESTING MEATS MAXIMIZES JUICES > Flashcards

Flashcards in CONCEPT 3: RESTING MEATS MAXIMIZES JUICES Deck (50):
1

Percentage of water in meat.

75% water - varies from cut to cut.

2

Most of the water in meat is referred to as what? Why?

"Bound water" because the proteins in meat trap water molecules inside.

3

Myofibrils are made of what?

Actin and myosin.

4

What are myofibrils?

Many small structures that make up a muscle fiber.

5

What happens protein when red meat or poultry is heated?

Linear protein molecules begin to chemically bond causing them to compress and contract, first in diameter then in length.

6

Why will raw meat not lose moisture when cut like cooked meat?

When the proteins contract they squeeze out part of the liquid or "bound water" trapped within their structures, which then moves into the spaces created between shrinking myofibrils.

7

Is the contracting process of cooked meat reversible?

Partly, if you allow cooked meat to rest proteins will relax and allow expelled moisture back in.

8

Where does moisture go when being absorbed back into resting meat?

Some of the proteins are doing more than shrinking when heated--they are dissolving. Resting allows contracted proteins to relax and draw moisture back in where it is held by the dissolved proteins.

9

Does meat cooked at high heat tend to benefit from a slightly longer rest time?

Yes, the proteins at the surface are hot and need time to cool down.

10

RESTING TIME: STEAK (BEEF)

5 to 10 minutes

11

RESTING TIME: ROAST (BEEF)

15 to 30 minutes

12

RESTING TIME: ROAST (LAMB)

15 to 30 minutes

13

RESTING TIME: CHOP (LAMB)

5 to 10 minutes

14

RESTING TIME: CHOPS (PORK)

5 to 10 minutes

15

RESTING TIME: TENDERLOIN (PORK)

10 minutes

16

RESTING TIME: ROAST (PORK)

15 to 30 minutes

17

RESTING TIME: PARTS (CHICKEN)

5 to 10 minutes

18

RESTING TIME: WHOLE (CHICKEN)

15 to 20 minutes

19

RESTING TIME: PARTS (TURKEY)

20 minutes

20

RESTING TIME: ROAST (TURKEY)

30 to 40 minutes

21

Best way to cut flank steak. Why?

On a bias against the grain; less chewiness and wider, more attractive pieces.

22

Due to market demands, today's pork is bread to be how lean?

50% leaner than its counterpart in the 1950s.

23

How has the industry addressed a leaner pork product?

Introducing a product called "enhanced pork."

24

What is enhanced pork?

Meat injected with a solution of water, salt and sodium phosphate.

25

What does sodium phosphate do to meat?

Increases it pH which improves its water-retaining abilities.

26

How much of fresh pork sold in supermarkets is now enhanced?

More than half.

27

How can you tell if pork is "enhanced" or "natural?"

The ingredient list will just be "pork" if it's natural; "enhanced" has several.

28

Does natural pork have a better flavor when cooked correctly?

Yes

29

Does "enhanced" pork give up most of the moisture added during manufacturing when it's sliced?

Yes, about 50% more juices during slicing than natural pork.

30

Should "enhanced" pork be brined?

No, it's already very salty.

31

Meat primarily consists of what?

Muscle fibers, fat, water and connective tissue.

32

How thin are muscle fibers? How long?

Thinner than human hair. Usually several inches.

33

What are individual muscle fibers wrapped in?

Connective tissue - thin strands visible as the "grain" in many cuts of meat.

34

Describe connective tissue.

Membranous, thin, silvery, translucent film that gives muscle fibers strength and support.

35

Sturdy protein that is tough to chew.

Collagen

36

Cut that possesses a large amounts of connective tissue in beef.

Chuck roast - shoulder.

37

What is a link between connective tissue and mobility?

Cuts of meat that aren't used for mobility (midsection) have very little collagen; however, muscles in the shoulder and hip area are filled with connective tissue.

38

Where is most water located in meat?

Within the myofibrils that make up a single muscle cell.

39

Where is water especially prone to being lost when meat is cooking?

Spaces between muscle fiber, not myofibrils.

40

Fat is produced and stored in what?

A specialized form of connective tissue called adipose cells; their job is too store energy.

41

How many types of fat are there in most animals? Explain

Two, the thick layer that surrounds the muscles and the thin filaments that run through the muscles.

42

What usually happens with the thick, outside layer of fat during butchering?

It's removed so that only 1/4 or 1/2 remains.

43

Name for thin filaments that run through meat. It's a key factor in determining what?

Marbling determines flavor and perceived juiciness of particular cut.

44

Areas of concern when safely preparing meat.

Cross-contamination and proper cooking to kill bacteria.

45

Is ground beef safe?

It could be meat from many different animals which increases risk of FBI; it's better grinding meat to order.

46

Why isn't cooking meat to 160 degrees every time a bacterial problem?

Only bacteria present is on the meat's surface.

47

Where is the coldest part of your frig?

The back is usually between 32 and 36 degrees.

48

Frig Defrost time: Thin steaks, chops, chicken breasts

8 to 12 hours

49

Frig Defrost time: Thick steaks, chops, bone-in chicken parts, 1lb ground beef.

24 hours

50

Frig Defrost time: Roasts, whole birds

5 hours per pound

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