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THE SCIENCE OF GOOD COOKING > PHYSICS AND FOOD > Flashcards

Flashcards in PHYSICS AND FOOD Deck (29):
1

Physics

The science of matter and energy and their interactions.

2

What do knives damage as they cut through food?

Cell structure (much like cooking and freezing) and that can affect color, texture and flavor.

3

Do onions have the same pungency when sliced in different directions?

No, they are less pungent when cut pole to pole (with the grain) as opposed to through the equator (against the grain); less cell damage pole to pole.

4

When cut, where does the intense flavor and acrid odor of onions come from?

Substances called thiosulfinates.

5

How are thiosulfinates (from onion) created?

When enzymes known as alliinases contained in the onion's cells interact with an amino acid called isoalliin that is also present in the vegetable.

6

Example of how cutting affects cooked food.

If you slice a grilled flank steak across the grain (that is, from side to side rather than end to end), you are i effect making these long fibers much shorter and thus easier to chew.

7

Chiffonade

Cut into very thin strips. Usually applies to fresh herbs, especially basil.

8

Fine chop

Cut to 1/8 to 1/4 inch pieces.

9

Medium chop

Cut into 1/4 to 1/2 inch pieces

10

Coarse chop

Cut into 1/2 to 3/4 inch pieces

11

Cut crosswise

To cut across food, perpendicular to its length.

12

Cut lengthwise

To cut with the length of the food, from end to end.

13

Cut on the bias

To cut across the food with the knife held at 45º angle to the food. Used for long, slender items such as asparagus.

14

Dice

To cut into uniform cubes with straight, even sides.

15

Julienne

To cut into matchstick-size pieces, usually 2 inches long and 1/8 inch thick.

16

Mince

To cut into 1/8 inch or smaller pieces.

17

Slice

To cut into flat pieces.

18

Thin slice

To cut into flat pieces 1/8 inch thick or less.

19

Can foods be changes without being heated or chilled? Examples.

Yes, balloon whisks can incorporate air; meat pounders can turn thick meats into thin cutlets; spice grinders can transform whole spices into fine, flavorful powders; wooden spoons can transform water, flour and yeast into dough.

20

What do we typically reserves nonstick pans for?

Delicate foods, such as fish and eggs, which are prone to stick.

21

Do nonstick pans brown food well as conventional pans?

No, don't use one unless recipe calls for it.

22

Correlation between fond and nonstick pans.

There often are no browned bits left in the pan once something has been cooked, and thus nothing to use for building a pan sauce.

23

How should skillets be measured?

From lip to lip but they're generally measured by volume.

24

What is meant by "crowd the pan?"

Putting too much food in one pan without enough surface area; could cause meats to steam instead of brown.

25

Why is following recipe cookware/bakeware sizes a good idea?

Simple changes can prolong cooking and cause food to become insufficiently cooked. Even something as simple as the presence or absence of rims on the edges of a baking sheet can affect the outcome.

26

What happens when replacing table salt with kosher?

You get half the salt.

27

Percentage of fat and water in butter.

80% fat, 16 to 18% water

28

Percentage of fat and water in vegetable shortening.

100% fat

29

Is substituting with savory foods a better bet than baking?

Yes, with baking you can't judge the outcome until the dish is finished. In savory recipes, you can often taste as you go.

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