Flashcards in CONCEPT 40: TIME BUILDS FLAVOR IN BREADS Deck (60):
Why do breads from artisan bakers taste so good?
The key is time. Stretching the bread making process over two days isn't any more work but it can yield fantastic bread with much better flavor.
After mixing and kneading dough comes fermentation, also known as ______ _______.
Is fermentation arguably the oldest of cooking techniques?
What is the last rise called (after 1st and 2nd)?
Oven spring, which last until all the yeast is killed.
Fermentation of dough is much like what?
Slowly blowing up a balloon.
What happens if fermentation occurs too quickly in a warm room?
Yeast can produce an excess of sour-smelling volatile acids.
What two techniques are used to prevent dough from proofing too quickly in a warm environment?
Pre-ferments and cool fermentation.
What is pre-ferments?
Often known as sponges or starters, are often made before the bread dough itself is even put together.
What is a sponge? How is it used?
Yeast, water and flour are mixed together and left to ferment for a few hours. The sponge is then combined with more water and flour and any other ingredients in the recipe for the final dough. This dough is then kneaded and left to sit for its first rise.
What is a starter? How is it used?
Consists of a portion of dough saved from the last time bread was made. Classic example is sourdough starter. To begin the bread-making process with a starter, the baker adds water and flour to the starter and then lets the mixture sit and ferment.
Do bakers use the whole starter and sponge for baking?
No, whereas the sponge is added in its entirety to the ingredients for the final dough, a small portion of the starter is put back in the crock (in the refrigerator) and saved for the next round of baking.
Why are pre-ferments great for recipes with minimal ingredients? Explain.
They boost the flavor in bread dramatically. With a lengthy rest, long carbohydrate chains, starches and other polysaccharides that have little taste break down into a multitude of sugars, acids and alcohol with lots of flavor.
What is cool fermentation?
It's all about temperature and why it's recommended that you let dough rise overnight in the refrigerator. It takes longer than on the counter, but there are many positive effects.
Positive effects of cool fermentation.
First, it reduces the size of gas bubbles that are created as the dough rises (the larger the bubbles in a dough prior to baking the more open and puffy it will be). Second it creates a more flavorful dough.
Why does cool fermentation create a more flavorful dough?
Because at lower temperatures yeast produces less carbon dioxide and more of the initial side products of fermentation: flavorful sugars, alcohol and acids.
Two roles yeast plays in dough.
Providing leavening and flavor.
TEST KITCHEN: YEASTED WAFFLES LEFT IN A REFRIGERATOR TO FERMENT AND ON THE COUNTER. RESPIROMETER WITH TEST TUBE AND BALLON MEASURED CARBONE DIOXIDE LEVELS.
In 3 hours the room temp batter had produced enough carbon dioxide to inflate the balloon, indicating healthy yeast activity. After 18 hours, the batter was spent and no longer produced carbon dioxide, causing the balloon to deflate. Refrigerated batter produced carbon dioxide at a very slow and steady rate. Even after 18 hours, the batter was still producing enough to partially fill the balloon.
Takeaway from test kitchen experiment.
Room temp yeast leavens quickly. However, the yeast was spent and no longer produced flavor after 18 hours. Cool fermentation takes longer and, because of its journey, provides much more flavor.
Wrapped with an extra layer of aluminum foil, how long can bread be kept in the freezer?
What is a sponge in Italian?
A standard no-knead dough develops structure gradually because the individual gluten clusters are slow to combine in larger units. But gently turning the dough accomplishes what three things?
It brings the wheat proteins into close proximity with one another, keeping the process going at maximum clip; it aerates the dough, replenishing oxygen that the yeast consume during fermentation; and it elongates and redistributes the bubbles.
What replicates the effect of kneading?
A high proportion of water to flour and a long resting process let the natural enzymes in the wheat replicate the effect of kneading.
Is olive oil a key ingredient in acacia?
What happens if olive oil is added straight to focaccia dough? Explain.
It can turn bread dense and cake-like because, just as with short-bread, fat "shortens" the dough by blocking gluten's ability to form continuous networks.
Why should you poke focaccia bread before baking?
This will pop large bubbles of air and allow any extra gas to escape.
Does delicately folding dough help it rise and improve flavor?
How does turning the dough help yeast with regard to carbon dioxide?
It rids the dough of excess carbon dioxide, which otherwise inhibits yeast activity, to ensure maximum flavor and rise.
How long does test kitchen recommend letting a sponge sit out?
8 or up to 24 hours at room temperature.
Problems with supermarket whole wheat bread.
They either pay lip service to being "whole wheat," yielding loaves containing so little of the whole grain stuff that they resemble the fluffy, squishy bread you find in supermarkets, or they call for so much that the loaves bake up coarse and dense, crumbling as soon as you slice into them.
What is the challenge of making whole wheat bread?
The very thing that gives it character and distinguishes it from white bread--the presence of bran--is also an impediment to gluten development.
Why would you soak whole wheat flour for bread?
First and foremost, it softens the grain's bran, thereby preventing the sharp edges from puncturing and deflating the dough. Second, the hydrating effect also prevents grains from robbing moisture from the dough, which would toughen the crumb. Third, steeping the grains activates the wheat's enzymes, converting some starches into sugars and, in turn, reducing bitterness and coaxing out a sweet flavor.
When making whole wheat bread, why would you substitute bread flour for AP flour?
Thanks to the boost in gluten development from its extra protein, you are able to increase the amount of whole wheat flour from 40 to 50%.
How could you get the wheat flour up to 60%?
Using a soaker.
How can you add even more wheaty flavor to wheat bread?
Add wheat germ.
How is wheat germ manufactured?
It's removed along with the bran during the milling process for refined flour and is a significant source of not only the whole grain's nutrition but also its sweet flavor.
How long should a soaker sit?
8 to 24 hours - same as a biga.
Does soaking whole wheat flour in milk improve both texture and flavor of whole wheat sandwich bread?
TEST KITCHEN: BAKING TWO LOAVES, EACH WITH A 3:2 RATIO OF WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR TO REFINED BREAD FLOUR. WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR WAS SOAKED OVERNIGHT IN ONE, THE OTHER REMAINED UNTOUCHED.
The texture and flavor of the bread made with the soaked flour were markedly better than those of the loaf in which it wasn't soaked. Soaking dulls the flour's hard, fibrous bran, blunting its ability to disrupt gluten development and produce a denser crumb. Also converted some of the starches to sugars, thereby sweetening the bran's natural bitterness.
How long can you proof pizza dough in the refrigerator?
24 hours to 3 days.
After pizza dough is taken from the refrigerator, what's the next step?
Cut into equal sized balls and let proof for one hour.
Why does putting pizza between a pizza stone and the top of an oven accomplish?
A nice brown curst on the top and bottom; the metal on top of the oven is conducting heat beater than the air.
When a chewy, nicely tanned pizza crust is your goal, what type of flour should you use?
High protein bread flower--about 13% by volume; proteins encourage chew and browning.
Is the food processor ok for bread and pizza dough?
No, its ok for pizza dough because the amount of flour is relatively low but it can tear apart the strands of protein that give bread structure and the ability to rise.
What does adding sugar and oil to pizza dough accomplish?
Encourages more crunch and color in the crust; a sprinkle of sugar on the crust is just as effect as it is on poultry for Maillard reaction.
Do most home ovens get hot enough to form a deeply browned pizza crust? How can you fix this?
No, at least not before the interior crumb dries out and toughens. Using a baking stone atop the oven is the best way to maximize heat exposure.
Why does placing a baking stone at the bottom of an oven not makes sense?
Commercial pizza ovens. These wide, shallow chambers quickly reflect heat from the floor back onto the top of the pie as it cools, preventing the crust from drying out before the toppings have browned; you can't alter the shape of your oven but you can narrow the gap.
Is their a cap on how many toppings you can add to pizza? What about meat? Explain.
Yes, an overloaded pie will become soggy and, if you're using hearty vegetables, precook to remove excess moisture. Meat should be precooked and drained of excess fat.
Does cool fermentation result in a thinner crust and more flavor?
TEST KITCHEN: PIZZA DOUGH RESTED FOR 4 HOURS AT ROOM TEMP AND 24 HOURS IN THE FRIDGE.
The dough left to rise at room temp produced a crust that puffed up like focaccia, while the dough that rose in the fridge baked up with smaller bubbles and boasted far more flavor.
Is fermentation a two phase process? Explain.
Yes, first the carbohydrates in the dough are converted by the yeast to sugars, alcohol and acids. Next, these convert to carbon dioxide, expanding the bubbles created in the dough when it is first mixed.
What acid is responsible for crescent rolls richer flavor and blistering crust when stored in the fridge over night?
For raised waffles, should you add eggs before or after letting them ferment?
Hopefully, the batter is put in the fridge over night; you can put the eggs in if they are refrigerated.
What is the key to great waffles and pancakes à la minute?
Why shouldn't you add buttermilk to yeasted waffles?
The yeast provide plenty of tang, buttermilk would be overkill.
Why is baking soda needed when yeasted waffles are left at room temp overnight but not in the fridge?
Baking soda is needed for lift because leaving the batter out overnight results in dead yeast; refrigerated yeasted waffles have plenty of leavening power.
What type of coils should you look for on waffle irons?
Thick heating coils extended under most of the cooking surface.
Once opened, where should you store maple syrup? Why?
Because of its high moisture level and lack of preservatives, it is perishable and susceptible to growth of yeasts, molds and bacteria. Refrigeration not only helps maple syrup retain its flavor but prevent microorganisms from growing as well--in the refrigerator or freezer.
How long will unopened maple syrup last?
In a cool, dark place it will last several years.
How long will maple syrup last once opened?
Six months to a year in the refrigerator.