CONCEPT 19: GENTLE HEAT GUARANTEES SMOOTH CUSTARDS Flashcards Preview

THE SCIENCE OF GOOD COOKING > CONCEPT 19: GENTLE HEAT GUARANTEES SMOOTH CUSTARDS > Flashcards

Flashcards in CONCEPT 19: GENTLE HEAT GUARANTEES SMOOTH CUSTARDS Deck (93):
1

How do eggs aid in baked goods?

They add richness and help them to thicken and set.

2

What happens when protein in eggs become active?

They begin to move about, running into each other, breaking delicate bonds that hold them as coiled-up balls. Once unfurled, they are able to bond with other proteins, creating a weblike structure that becomes increasingly opaque and solid with time.

3

Temperature at which egg whites and yolks begin to coagulate.

140 to 150 for whites, 150 to 160 for yolk.

4

What is happening when eggs curdle?

When exposed to too much heat, the egg proteins will coagulate too much. They will for strong bonds with surrounding proteins, making clumps and separating from the liquid surrounding them.

5

What type of cooking environment is best suited for custard desserts?

Low and slow.

6

The principles of what cause a pumpkin pie's outer edges to cook faster than it's interior?

Conduction

7

Why do you cook a pie or cheesecake low and slow?

Mitigate the heat differential and increase our window of opportunity.

8

What's the purpose of a ban-marie or water bath for baking egg-based desserts.

Because water never reaches a temperature higher than boiling point, or 212 degrees, the water further slows down cooking. In addition, the water evaporates, creating a humid environment that reduces level of evaporation from the cake.

9

TEST KITCHEN: CHEESECAKE IN WATER BATH AND ON RACK.

Outside closest to the edge was 184 for WB and 213 for rack; smooth against brown and cracked.

10

What's happening when the top of a cheesecake is cracked?

The egg proteins coagulated so rapidly un the unmitigated heat they clumped together, creating a lumpy texture and pulling apart the cakes surface.

11

How far up should a water bath go?

Half way up the sides.

12

After a cheesecake is made, how long does it take for crust to lose its crispness?

One day

13

Should you excrete extra moisture from the canned pumpkin for pie or cheesecake?

Yes, use paper towels or a cheesecloth.

14

Why does a springform pan need to be protected with foil or a larger cake pan?

To prevent leakage.

15

Are there any problems with using foil? Possible solutions?

Steam from the water bath can condense inside the foil; us a large cake pan.

16

Why is using a slightly larger cake pan better than foil?

The slight gap between pans isn't wide enough to prevent the water from insulating the springform pan, and there is zero danger of water exposer since moisture that condenses on the sides rapidly evaporates.

17

Ratio of egg yolks to cream in crème brûlée recipe.

12 yolks to 4 C

18

Great way to lower temp of cream before tempering.

Use reserved cream to combine after steeping.

19

What % of fat is Hal-and-half?

10-18%

20

What % of fat is heavy cream?

36%

21

What % of fat is whipping cream?

30%

22

Why does crème caramel use whole eggs while crème brûlée uses only yolks?

Whole eggs help you achieve a clean cutting quality. CB is richer and softer--with a pudding like, spoon-clinging texture--in part because of the exclusive use of yolks.

23

Is it harder to extract flavors using the cold method?

Yes

24

When using a water bath, how do you also protect the bottom?

Use kitchen towels.

25

For caramelizing crème brûlée, why is the broiler a bad choice?

It's almost a guaranteed fail with uneven heat distribution.

26

The world's two largest producers of vanilla bean.

Madagascar and Indonesia.

27

Flavor compound in vanilla beans.

Vanillin

28

Is vanilla the most expensive spice in the world?

No, it's second only to saffron.

29

Why were initial attempts to cultivate vanilla outside Mexico and Central America futile?

The symbiotic relationship between the vanilla orchid and its natural pollinator, the local species of Melipona bee. Pollination is required to set the fruit from which the flavoring is derived.

30

How was it finally spread globally?

In 1841, Edmond Albius, a 12-year-old slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant.

31

What family of plants does vanilla derive?

Orchidaceae or the orchid family.

32

Are vanilla beans cured?

Yes

33

Vanilla and chocolate were completely unknown in the Old World until who?

Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.

34

Which part of the vanilla flower contains the bean and its seeds?

The ovary and its ovules.

35

The majority of the world's vanilla.

Commonly known as Bourbon vanilla (after the former name of Réunion, Île Bourbon) or Madagascar vanilla, which is produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, and in Indonesia.

36

Where do differences in most vanilla beans come from?

How much of the flavor compound vanillin was developed during curing.

37

Explain the curing process for Madagascar beans.

Pods are dipped in hot water to halt growth, dried in the sun and placed (while wrapped in cloth and straw mats) in wooden boxes to sweat over night. Cycle is repeated until manufacturer decides they're ready for a holding room, where they rest until shriveled, brown and fragrant.

38

How much are two Madagascar vanilla beans?

$15.99

39

Flavor and texture of cheesecake are best if cake is allowed to do what?

Sit at room temp for 30 minutes.

40

Is a very low oven temp also ok for custard based baking?

Assuming there is no water bath, yes.

41

Why should dairy ingredients be at room temp before mixing?

Small nodules of unmixed cheese, sugar or other ingredients amid an otherwise smooth bite.

42

10 cups of Kosher salt and what form a salt crust for baking?

Egg whites make the mixture look like fine sand.

43

Describe the texture of cream cheese alone? Why are other ingredients added to a cheese cake?

Cream cheese is pasty; additional dairy loosens up the texture, giving it a smoother, more luxurious finish.

44

What does sour cream bring to the party?

Tang

45

Why should you be careful adding salt to a dish that contains cream cheese?

Cream cheese already contains sodium chloride.

46

Why use extra whole eggs and extra yolks for a cheese cake?

Whole eggs are often called for a softer, airier cake. Something like cheesecake needs more emulsifiers, fat and less moisture to produce a velvety lush texture.

47

How do you cook a New York style cheesecake?

High to low; no water bath.

48

Besides during cooking, how else can a cheesecake crack?

During the cooling process a cake can cling to the sides, tearing the egg structure at its weakest point--the center.

49

Why would you pre or blind bake a pie crust?

If the filling has a lot of moisture the crust will need some alone baking time to crisp up first.

50

Average lifespan of a taste bud.

10 days

51

Why should you keep a pre-baked pie crust warm when adding its custard filling?

Using a hot filling with warm crust allows the custard to firm up quickly, preventing it from soaking into the crust and turning soggy.

52

How should you treat an added purée and spices like that of pumpkin pie?

The pumpkin purée and spices should be reduced together to intensify the flavor; spices bloom and moisture evaporates. Cooking also minimizes the mealy texture.

53

Besides spices, how do you add complex flavor to a pumpkin pie?

Add another orange vegetable like yams.

54

What does blasting a pumpkin pie for 10 minutes at 500 degrees, then turning it down to 300 degrees accomplish?

Helps expedite the cooking process and still leaves you with a smooth, velvety pie.

55

The strong molasses taste of what can overwhelm lemon?

Graham crackers

56

Although zest offers a nice lemon flavor what's its hitch?

The fibrous texture of the zest can mar creamy fillings smoothness.

57

How do you break up the fibrous texture of zest?

Mixing with some sugar in a food processor releases a wonderfully potent lemon flavor.

58

Why shouldn't you blend the entire batch of sugar with zest when making a cheesecake?

It wreaks havoc on the crystalline structure (necessary for aerating the cream cheese) as well as meld it with the lemon zest's oil, creating a strangely dense cake.

59

Technique for a fool proof creamy consistency.

Turn the oven off and leave the door ajar an extra hour.

60

Does the fat in cream cheese have a high or low softening temperature? Possible problems?

Low softening temp means a high proportion of cream cheese to eggs proteins creates structural issues; make sure it's chilled enough.

61

What does acid do to cheesecake?

Acid changes electrical charge of proteins, causing them to denature and eventually form a gel.

62

What does stirring do to eggs when being cooked on a stovetop--think tempering.

A constant stir reduces the amount of egg proteins that bond so the end product is a sauce rather than solid mass.

63

Why would you stir in cold cubed butter when a lemon curd reaches its prime thickness?

Once the curd hits 170 degrees, a cold butter will cool it faster so eggs don't curdle; creates a smoother emulsion as well.

64

How does acid affect the texture of eggs?

Acids neutralize some of the negative electrical charges of egg proteins, causing them to form a gel.

65

Are eggs tangled chains of amino acids?

Yes

66

Does each chain of amino acids in eggs carry an abundance of negative charges?

Yes

67

How does a lemon cheesecake, with equal parts of cream and eggs, not curdle when cooked?

Adding the strong acid from lemon juice neutralizes many of the negative electrical charges, causing egg proteins to form a weak, soft gel. This creates a layer of liquid trapped between the weakly bonded ribbons of protein.

68

Is lemon juice stronger more acidic than rice wine vinegar?

Yes

69

What does applying heat do for the electrical charges of eggs?

Causes proteins chains to unravel, exposing more balanced electrical charges.

70

What encourages an egg to cook and form a moist and creamy solid?

Lemon juice

71

How long should you freeze a canister-style ice cream machine?

Preferable 48 but 24 will work.

72

What gives ice cream its silky texture?

Eggs

73

What should you know about the speed of freezing when making ice cream?

The quicker it freezes, the smoother the ice cream.

74

What can you supplement with sugar to freeze ice cream faster?

Corn syrup

75

What is happening when you temper an egg mixture with warm liquid?

It warms the eggs up gently and dilutes the proteins so they are less likely to bond and curdle.

76

If a crème anglaise must be cooked to 180 degrees, why don't the eggs curdle?

Other ingredients added to the custard change the temperature of coagulation. For example, milk dilutes the proteins and introduces some fat, both of which raise the temperature at which eggs coagulate because in the presence the proteins don't bump into each other as readily. Sugar also slows down protein unfolding.

77

What do ingredients like milk and sugar raise the coagulation temperature of eggs to?

180

78

Why is it import to cook a custard to 180 degrees and not lower?

Below that temperature the egg proteins will not have uncoiled enough to form sufficient bonds to create the solid gel structure we need.

79

Should you strain a custard before using? Why?

Yes, removing little "shards" of egg that can cause a mealy mouthfeel.

80

Is smooth ice cream less icy than "icy" ice cream?

Technically, its ice crystals are so small our tongues can't detect them.

81

Since canister-style ice cream machines take about 35 minutes to churn, how do we combat not having a restaurant kitchen churner?

Freezing some of the custard and combining it with the refrigerated blend before churning.

82

How long does it take a restaurant style ice cream churner to finishing freezing the custard?

40 degrees to soft serve in 24 seconds.

83

How does corn syrup combat iciness in ice cream do to its molecular makeup?

First, it is made up of glucose molecules and large tangled chains of starch that interrupt the flow of water molecules in a custard base. Since water molecules can't move freely, they are less likely to form large ice crystals.

84

Why does corn syrup combat iciness in ice cream better than regular table sugar?

It creates a higher freezing point in ice cream than granulated sugar does. Therefore, it is less likely to thaw and refreeze; inevitable shift create larger ice crystals.

85

Corn syrup can keep ice cream smooth for nearly how long?

A week

86

Most people spread ice cream in a tall container before freezing. Is there a better way?

Metal conducts heat faster than plastic or glass; spreading it on a square metal baking pan will cool it much faster, especially if it's a thin layer.

87

The addition of what in frozen desserts makes it harder for water molecules to form ice crystals?

Sugar

88

Name 4 desserts that benefit from the mitigating freeze power of sugar?

Ice cream, sorbet, granita and sherbet.

89

A microscopic view of frozen dessert would reveal small grains of what?

Of ice lubricated with sugar, fat and bubbles of air.

90

Does the simple churning of an ice cream machine add air?

Yes, sometimes it can double the volume.

91

What is the relationship between sugar concentration in water while freezing?

The higher concentration of sugar takes longer to freeze and, as some water does freeze, sugar concentration will continue to rise in remaining liquid H2O.

92

Does sugar reduce the size of ice crystals?

Yes, it physically interferes with their growth; smaller crystals means less grainy texture.

93

What three things does sugar do for the final product of ice cream?

Makes it sweet, smooth and scoopable.

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