Flashcards in CONCEPT 6: SLOW HEATING MAKES MEAT TENDER Deck (45):
What enzyme is released due to gentle heat of slow warming?
Cathepsins, which produce more tender meat.
Juiciness is almost entirely determined by what two factors?
Marbling and internal temperature.
What is a sweet and sour sauce from Italy called?
Common French sauce similar to Agrodolce.
How is Agrodolce made?
Agrodolce is made by reducing sour and sweet elements, traditionally vinegar and sugar.
What was found, regarding sweetness, when extra honey was added to a chicken pan sauce?
The sauce because saccharine or overly sweet.
Does corn syrup contain as much sugar as other sweeteners?
No, it contains about half as much.
What are the sweeteners in corn syrup?
Mostly glucose and larger sugar molecules that are much less sweet than table sugar.
What does corn syrup do for moisture?
Glucose in corn syrup has an affinity for water, which means it helps hold moisture in a glaze, making the overall dish seem juicier.
What does corn syrup do for a glaze?
Adds moisture, gloss and thickens the glaze.
Why fresh OJ turns sour.
When cell are ruptured during the juicing process, the compound LARL reacts with juice to form a bitter compound called limonin.
What stops bitter flavor in store bought OJ?
Pasteurization process stops this reaction. However, in freshly squeezed juice the reaction will continue unabated.
Limonoate A-ring lactone
How long should you freeze chicken. Test results?
No more than two months. 2-month-old chicken was nearly as tender as fresh. Over that was about 15% tougher.
What is a Warner-Bratzler shear devise?
Measures tenderness by quantifying the force required to cut meat.
Does fish create same amount of fond as meat?
No, fish contains very little natural glucose, which is required to undergo the browning reactions with protein.
What are cathepsins?
any of a class of intracellular proteolytic enzymes, occurring in animal tissue, especially the liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine, that catalyze autolysis in certain pathological conditions and after death.
What is an enzyme?
Any of various proteins, as pepsin, originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances by catalytic action, as in digestion.
At what temp does cathepsin activity stop?
122 degrees Fahrenheit
Example of great quality meat due to cathepsins.
Dry aged steaks.
Regarding cathepsins, why is slowly bringing meat to temp a good idea?
While our steaks are slowly heating up, the cathepsins are working overtime, in effect "aging" and tenderizing our steaks within half an hour.
What is the best temp to warm steak at in an oven? Why?
275-degree (more cathepsin activity at lower temp) oven before searing to release excess surface moisture helping the steak to brown faster.
Does tempering meat really make a difference?
No, not really.
Does warming meat in a ziplock bag before cooking help browning? Why?
No, the moisture has nowhere to go and turns to steam when meat is thrown in a pan.
Do cathepsins work faster at higher temperatures?
What does gentle roasting do to exterior of meat? Think of searing after.
Creates a thin, arid layer that will crust up faster when seared.
When should you season meat with salt? Why?
45 minutes before cooking. Salt draws moisture up through osmosis then reverses back into the meat.
Secret weapon for cooking meat.
What are enzymes? What is their function in living animals?
A type of protein. In living animals, one of their functions is the turnover and reprocessing of other proteins around them.
Enzymes important role in catalyzing change.
Increasing rates of chemical reaction, affecting food's consistency, texture and color.
Two important enzymes at work when dry-aging beef.
Cathepsins and calpains.
What do calpains do to meat?
Break down the proteins that hold muscle fibers in place.
What do cathepsins do to meat?
Break apart a range of meat proteins, contracting filaments, and supporting molecules, and even weaken the collagen in the muscles' connective tissue.
Calpains and cathepsins have the ability to create what flavor? How?
Umami taste by encouraging the formation of amino acids and peptides as muscle breaks down.
The activity level of calpains and cathepsins is based largely on what?
Why is a full 30 days of dry-aging needed for meat?
Because enzymatic activity is very slow between 32 and 40 degrees Fahrenheit.
Good enzyme analogy for calpains and cathepsins.
Cathepsins and calpains are like saws.
What happens to enzymatic action after 122 degrees Fahrenheit.
TEST KITCHEN: Two beef roasts - enzymatic activity.
One for 48 hours in sous vide at 120 the other an internal temp of 120 after two hours. Held with tongs, weight added to bottom. 48 hours tore immediately; 2 hours took 15 seconds.
Temperature at which collagen breaks down into gelatin.
Low-temperature tenderizing is meant for which types of meat?
Slightly tough cuts of meat with little connective tissue; roasts from top round or sirloin.
Is low-temp tenderizing necessary for tender cuts tenderloin?
How do you dry-age steaks at home?
Wrap them in cheesecloth and store in the fridge for four days.
Is a home refrigerator more humid than commercial?
No, commercial is more humid.