Flashcards in CONCEPT 12: SALT MAKES MEAT JUICY AND SKIN CRISP Deck (58):
What happens when you dry brine meat?
The moisture is initially drawn out to dissolve the super concentrated brine and restore balance. However, after time the salt is pulled back into the protein causing it to break down tissue and eventually pull the animals own juices back inside.
What benefit is gained through a dry brine?
Surface moisture is eventually pulled back into the protein so you're left with a greater capacity for browning.
Which salt clumps, kosher or table?
Which contains more salt, Diamond Crystal or Morton kosher salt?
Because of its more open crystal structure, Diamond Crystal is less.
Is it better to apply salt to skin or underneath? Why?
Because the skin is very high in water-impenetrable fat we've found that it is most effective to apply the salt underneath the skin and in direct contact with the meat.
When salting turkey, what time frame is the best for dry brine?
If it sits for 12 hours, the result is a salty crust and bland inner meat. 72 or even 96 hours causes overly salty bird with jerky like appearance. 24 to 48 hours are the perfect compromise: most meat ends up nicely seasoned and pretty moist.
Why would you brush away excess salt after a dry brine?
Avoid salty pockets.
How do you use ice to help a temperature gap between the breast and thighs?
Place iced Zipperlock-bags in a roasting pan, large cavity and neck area to lower the starting temperature. Turkey will be placed breast side down.
How many times should you flip a turkey in the oven?
When a chicken label read"contains up to 4% retained water" what does that mean?
Soon after slaughtering, most supermarket birds are submerged in a 34 degree chlorinated bath.
What makes poultry from Bell & Evans so much better than generic brands?
Soon after slaughter, birds are air-chilled in order too cool to a safe temperature.
Why are the chlorinated baths so counterproductive?
USDA's research service sates that chickens can absorb up to 12% of this additional moisture; the amount drops to 4% by the time they are sold.
What can you use to help crisp up chicken skin? How?
Baking powder is composed of an alkali and mild acids. The alkali in this case is baking soda, and more than half of the acids present are formulated to be released when heated. Before cooking, baking powder acts as a mild alkali, prodding some of the proteins and fat in chicken to break down, as well as speed up dehydration of the skin. The combo of more alkaline environment and weakened protein and fat accelerates Maillard reaction during roasting for crispier more flavorful skin.
What is an alkali?
A chemical compound that generates hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
What is the ratio of baking powder to salt?
1.5 teaspoons of salt to 1 teaspoon of baking powder.
Why would you punch holes in chicken skin before roasting?
Soggy chicken skin is ofter caused by poorly rendered fat, which accumulates under the skin with nowhere to go. Poking holes in the skin, especially yellow fat pockets, helps mitigate this issue.
When making beer chicken what size can is best?
16oz will help vertically support chicken.
What's in a beer can that is thought to be unsafe?
The epoxy that contains bisephenol A (BPA), which some studies have linked to cancer and other harmful health effects.
KITCHEN TEST: Vertical Roaster and Beer Can
Two chickens were cooked with 6oz of beer, ground up to make homogenous sample and sent to a lab. Both had a BPA that measured less than 20 micrograms per kilogram.
How much BPA exposure is safe according to the FDA?
50 micrograms per kilogram of body weight. That's 3,400 micrograms per day for a 150-pound-person.
Is it better to apply a glaze toward the beginning or end?
Most recipes call for a watery glaze to apply toward the beginning but reducing it and adding at the end will save the skin's crispiness and flavor.
How do you thicken the glaze?
Reduce or add cornstarch.
Does stuffing poultry usually complicate cooking?
What is barding?
Wrapping lean meat with a fattier one.
How do you create a make-shift V-rack?
Cooking grates from a gas stove.
Best way to stuff a turkey?
Put a cheese cloth filled with stuffing in the birds cavity and pull out half way through the cooking process.
What is the natural thickener found if cranberries?
What is salt made from?
Evaporated sea water or obtained from rock deposits.
The two nimble ions founds in salt with a positive and negative charge are what?
Sodium and chloride.
What kind of attraction holds sodium and chloride together?
What distinguishes one salt from another?
Texture, size and mineral content.
Texture, size and mineral content can affect what in salt?
How it tastes and interacts with food.
Tabe salt is also know as what?
Describe common salt.
Consists of tiny, uniformly cube-shaped crystals created during rapid vacuum evaporation. Usually includes anti-caking agents to help it pour smoothly.
Should you avoid iodized salt? Why?
Yes, it can impart a subtle chemical flavor.
What is anti-caking?
An agent that prevents the formation of a hard, solid mass.
Does table salt dissolve easily?
Why does common table salt not create a clear solution when dissolved?
The anti-caking agents are insoluble in water and leaves a cloudy appearance.
How is kosher salt so flaky?
It is raked during the evaporation process to yield flaky aggregates of cubic crystals originally used for koshering meat.
What is koshering meat?
Removing any blood.
Does kosher salt contain any additives?
Is kosher salt a good choice for seasoning meats? Why?
Yes, the large grains distribute easily and cling to the meat's surfaces.
Describe sea salt.
The product of seawater evaporation--a time consuming, expensive process that yields irregularly shaped, mineral-rich flakes that vary in color but only slightly in flavor.
Does sea salt taste any different from table?
Best use for sea salt? Why?
As a finishing salt where it's delicate crunch stands out. Texture, not exotic provenance, is the main consideration when buying sea salt.
What salt isn't always a cubed formation? Why?
The presence of impurities in sea salt can produce crystal shapes other than cubes.
What brands of sea salt are best? Why?
Maldon Sea Salt is best because it boasts large, flakey crystals.
1 teaspoon table salt = ___ Morton kosher salt
1 1/2 teaspoons Morton kosher sat = ___ teaspoons Diamond Crystal kosher
1 teaspoon table salt = ___ Espirit du Fleur de Sel
1 teaspoon table salt = ___ Lightly Grey Celtic Sea Slat
1 teaspoon table salt = ___ Fleur de Sel de Camargue
1 teaspoon table salt = ___ Morton Salt (noniodized)
1 teaspoon table salt = ___ Morton Iodized Salt
1 teaspoon table salt = ___ La Baleine Sea Salt
To prevent contamination of salt and pepper, what ratio is acceptably placed in a small ramekin?
4 parts kosher salt = 1 part pepper
Why do some recipes include a specific amount of salt and follow it with "season to taste?"
Variations and time and ingredients could cause the recipe to become over salty; it's best to season toward the end.