CONCEPT 16: CREATE LAYERS OF BREADING THAT STICK Flashcards Preview

THE SCIENCE OF GOOD COOKING > CONCEPT 16: CREATE LAYERS OF BREADING THAT STICK > Flashcards

Flashcards in CONCEPT 16: CREATE LAYERS OF BREADING THAT STICK Deck (47):
1

Breading usually consists of what three things?

Flour (or some flour like substance); an egg wash (or something like it); and bread crumbs (sometimes toasted), ground cereal or crush crackers.

2

What is the inherent problem with breading?

Creating a bound breading that is both texturally pleasing and will not fall off the meat.

3

One of the principle reasons breading fails to adhere with meat. How do you fix it?

Excess moisture rapidly turns to steam, forcing the coating to release from the meat as steam escapes. To fix, dry your meat thoroughly.

4

What does pounding meat accomplish when breading?

It encourages the presence of soluble, sticky proteins which will help keep a coating in its place.

5

What step is paramount to creating a solid crust?

Using a three-layer coating.

6

What is the first layer of breading and its purpose?

Flour (or cornstarch) is the initial coating of starch that will absorb any excess moisture, creating a tacky base coat when combined with the sticky meat proteins that act as glue for the breading.

7

What is the second layer of breading and its purpose?

Egg wash (or similar liquid coating) contains proteins that are also sticky, especially when lightly mixed at room temperature, when they begin the process of unraveling and, as a result, are better able to bind with the layer of flour beneath.

8

What is the third layer of breading and its purpose?

Consists of bread crumbs (or something similar) to provide a textural majority of the crust.

9

Why is rest after breading important?

A short rest helps ensure a strong bond with egg proteins, which will then have time to penetrate into the honeycomb structure of the bread.

10

Are the proportions of layers important?

Yes

11

What happens if you use too much flour?

Too much flour can act as a barrier between the meat proteins and egg wash layer.

12

What happens when you use too much egg wash?

If the egg wash is too heavy and thick it will separate from the meat due to the combination of its own weight and the steam escaping during cooking.

13

What is often done to combat a thick egg wash?

Oil or water is often added as a thinner.

14

TEST KITCHEN: BREADING

Three chops: one breaded with panko, another w/panko and egg wash and the third with trifecta. Trifecta was best by far.

15

How long can homemade bread crumbs stay in the freezer?

They're fine after one month but two really diminished their flavor.

16

Ratio of finely to coarsely grated bread crumbs when toasted and not toasted.

Frozen Crumbs
Fine: 2/3 C
Coarse: 1/3 C

Frozen Toasted
Fine: 1/3 C
Coarse: 2/3 C

17

Is breaded chicken noticeably crispier when not overcrowded in a pan?

Yes

18

Thinest you should pound meat before breading? Why?

1/2 inch or the chicken could overcook before bread in sufficiently browned.

19

Why would you use oil in place of water for an egg wash?

Helps the breading to brown a bit more deeply without adding moisture.

20

Describe the results of dry bread crumbs.

An unmistakably stale flavor.

21

Describe the results of Panko.

Rate well for their shattering crispiness and wheat flavor.

22

Describe the results of fresh bread crumbs.

Mild, subtly sweet flavor and light, crisp texture.

23

Why is premium sliced sandwich bread recommended for bread crumbs?

It's the sweetest.

24

How long should you let meat rest after breading?

5 minutes will help everything solidify.

25

How much oil should be used in a pan if not deep frying?

One-third to half-way up the food.

26

Why should the oil not be as hot for frying compared to sauté?

For even browning the oil needs to be less or it will burn.

27

Is olive or vegetable better for frying?

According to test kitchen, veg won because of its light, unobtrusive presence.

28

Why is crowding the pan a bad idea when frying?

The accumulation of steam causes breading to get greasy. Two at a time is fine.

29

How can you make butterflying chicken easier?

Freeze it for 15 minutes.

30

What benefit would baking fresh bread crumbs before frying have? Example: Chicken Kiev.

Allows you to avoid pan-frying so you can cook chicken entirely in the oven.

31

Why is it better to pound, fill and roll a chicken with herb butter rather than place in the middle of a halved breast?

It's almost impossible to prevent the butter from leaking out while cooking.

32

What do flattened chicken breasts resemble?

Teardrops

33

What helps tame the richness of fat?

Acidity

34

What's one technique to ensure a wrapped, stuffed chicken breast is easy to handle while beading? Why?

Chill in the fridge for an hour so the edges begin sticking together, nearly gluing shut the chicken.

35

What is proven when a pounded chicken sticks together in the refrigerator?

Sticky proteins really work.

36

What can you add in an egg wash to boost flavor?

Dijon mustard

37

Why would you pound the cutlets edges to 1/4 inch?

A tapered edge will be easier to wrap.

38

When breading food, do the three essential steps differ depending on cooking technique?

Yes, pan-frying does a better job of fusing crumbs to meat; bake bread first if cooking in oven.

39

Why would you use only egg whites in a wash for breading? What else could be added? Why?

Fat in yolks can make crumbs soft, so getting rid of them when crumbs are already baked is essential. Adding flour and mustard turns the liquid-y wash into a spackle-like paste that really sticks to chops.

40

What does cornstarch release as it absorbs water?

Sticky starch that forms an ultra-crsip sheath when exposed to heat and fat.

41

Why would you substitute buttermilk for an egg wash? Assume first coating is cornstarch.

Because cornstarch absorbs liquid less readily than flour and raw egg is already less available to be soaked up because it's so bound up in its proteins.

42

Why is it smart to use cornflakes with buttermilk when breading your food?

The flakes are engineered to retain their crunch in liquid and, since breadcrumbs absorb a lot of liquid, flakes are a popular way of adding craggy texture.

43

What does scoring meat before breading do? Why is this useful?

Releases sticky proteins that dampen the surface starch helping a coating to adhere.

44

What combo usually produces a gummy patch when breading pork? Solution?

Flour, egg and bread crumbs. Swap flour for cornstarch, buttermilk for egg, flakes for crumbs.

45

Why does breading pull away from pork when using eggs?

The egg wash puffs up when cooking and contributes to a heavier coat that can pull away from the meat.

46

Traditional garnish for pork schnitzel.

Hard-cooked egg, capers, parsley and lemon.

47

What did shaking the pan do for pork schnitzel?

Ample hot oil heated eggs in the coating very quickly, solidifying the proteins, creating a barrier that captures steam and begins to puff. The shaking sends hot oil over the cutlets, speeding up the setting process and enhancing puff.

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