Flashcards in CONCEPT 35: GLUTAMATES, NUCLEOTIDES ADD MEATY FLAVOR Deck (53):
Who discovered umami?
Japanese physical chemistry professor Kikunae Ikeda in 1909.
How did Professor Kikunae Ikeda test for umami?
He extracted a white compound from giant sea kelp used to give Japanese broths a savory and meaty flavor.
Ikeda identified the substance from the giant sea kelp as what?
Do foods containing umami stimulate different protein receptors in the mouth?
How was umami confirmed as one of the 5 basic tastes?
Molecular biologist discovered the receptor for glutamate around 2000.
Are glutamates a type of amino acid?
Do amino acids play a larger role in browning of meat or the flavor of food that contain glutamates?
Flavor of foods that contain glutamates.
Full, meaty and robust soups describe what taste sensation?
What is MSG compared to glutamate?
The sodium salt form or naturally occurring glutamate, produced by growing bacteria on cane molasses and ammonia.
What form of glutamic acid produces the sensation of umami?
Only the salt form of the amino acid will.
Why does MSG have a bad rap?
In part because of "Chinese restaurant syndrome."
What is Chinese restaurant syndrome?
Term coined in the late 1960s when people complained of headaches and digestive upset after eating Chinese food and suspected MSG the cause; various studies failed to find a link.
As a pure substance, do glutamates, including MSG, produce a relatively weak umami taste?
The sensation of glutamates was greatly enhanced when naturally occurring substances called _________ were introduced.
Nucleotides, especially inosinate and guanylate.
When glutamates and nucleotides are present at equal levels in food strength what happens?
The strenght of umami is as much as 20 to 30 times greater than for glutamates alone.
How do nucleotides affect glutamates? Is it a chemical reaction?
When combined, there's no reaction between the two. Instead, the nucleotides affect the taste receptors on the human tongue, altering the shape of the glutamate receptors and allowing them to send stronger signals to the brain - think of tetris.
Two pure form of sodium glutamates and nucleotides
MSG powder and inosinate powder.
TEST KITCHEN: 4 CUPS OF WATER FILLED WITH NOTHING, NUCLEOTIDES, MSG ADN BOTH NUCLEOTIDES AND MSG.
Savoriness on a scale of 1 to 10: plain water 0, nucleotide 5, msg 5, both msg and nucleotides 10.
We've often added glutamate-rich ingredients like what to food?
Soy sauce and Parmesan cheese.
What is readily found in chicken, pork and anchovies?
Inosinate - it plays well with glutamates.
Classic example of inosinate and glutamates paired together?
Anchovies and Parmesan cheese in Caesar dressing.
Does test kitchen recommend buying powdered forms of glutamates or insinuate?
Tomatoes, aged cheese and cured meats are rich in what?
Beef, sardines and mushrooms are rich in what?
Food containing glutamates and their amount.
Milligrams per 100 grams (3.5 ounces):
Kombu (kelp): 2240
Nori (seaweed): 1378
Soy Sauce: 1100
Fish sauce: 950
Oyster Sauce: 900
Tomato Paste: 556
Cured Ham: 340
Green Tea Extract: 32
Red Wine: 12.2
Food containing nucleotides and their amount.
Milligrams per 100 grams (3.5 ounces):
Dried Bonito Flakes: 700
Anchovies: 300 (+4300 mg glutamates)
Chicken : 288
Sardines: 193 (+300 mg glutamates)
Dried Shiitake Mushrooms: 150
Beef: 94 (+100 mg glutamates)
Shrimp: 92 (+45 mg glutamates)
Dried Morel Mushrooms: 40
Dried Oyster Mushrooms: 10
Dried Porcini Mushrooms: 10
Snow Crab: 9
Sea Urchin: 2
What is Vegemite?
A dark brown Australian food paste made from leftover brewers' yeast extract (a by-product of beer manufacture) and various vegetable and spice additives.
One of the cheapest, beefiest cuts of beef you can buy.
Why are Yukon Gold a better for soup than russets?
They won't break down so easily and turn the stew grainy.
With a quick cooking stew, how can you recreate the body given by a long simmering process?
Bloom gelatin and add it in.
Why are cuts with a loose open grade good for quick cooking stews?
They have a shredded texture that fools people into thinking it has been cooked for hours.
Name some loose open grain cuts of meat.
Hangar steak, flank steak, sirloin steak tips and blade steak; sirloin steak tips offer the best balance of tenderness and meatiness.
Why should you be careful when cutting meat for a soup?
If it's too big the product will resemble stew, too small will resemble chili.
Challenge with creamy tomato sauce.
Ramp up enough savory, meaty notes to stand up to the richness and sweetness imparted by the cream.
What can provide a welcome brightness and helps balance sweetness of tomato sauce?
Wine - remember, letting it reduce works.
Can cream makes sauces heavy?
What should you avoid when buying crushed tomatoes?
Look for brands that list fresh tomatoes, not tomato puree, as the first ingredient.
For the tomato sauce, was crushing the tomatoes enough to provide the right consistency?
Yes, they didn't need to puree.
Should you cook the cream or just add at the end?
Cooking can bring out the sauces sweet notes and throw off the balance of a sauce; stir in at the end.
Unlike most kinds of canned produce, which pale in comparison to their fresh counterparts, a great can of tomatoes offer?
Offers flavor almost as intense as ripe, in-season fruit.
What can canned tomatoes be used for?
Anything from pasta sauce, stews, chili and soups to salsa.
What should you buy when looking for bright big chunks of tomato?
Test kitchen two favorite brands of canned tomatoes.
Muir Glen Organic Whole Peeled Tomatoes and Hunt's Whole Plum Tomatoes.
How do companies pick diced tomatoes?
Some grow firm walls that will stand up to dicing and others choose thin-walled tomatoes and cook them longer for a soft consistency.
What happens after canned tomatoes are peeled?
After peeling, tomatoes are machine diced and canned. The juice is handled separately, heated and treated will calcium chloride, salt and citric acid (boost flavor and lower pH). The juice is then added to some cans, sealed, heat sterilized, and rapidly cooled to prevent overcooking.
Preferred brands of diced tomatoes.
Hunt's Diced Tomatoes
What do you want to see in canned crushed tomatoes?
A fair amount of liquid and actual tomato pieces.
What makes a differences in canned crushed tomato flavor?
How tomatoes are processed (either at low temperatures for a longer time or a high temp for a shorter time) makes a difference and how they're topped; puree is cooked - the more puree, the less tomato flavor.
Favorite canned crushed tomato brands.
Tuttorosso Crushed Tomatoes in Thick Puree with Basil and Muir Glen Organic Crushed Tomatoes with Basil came in a close second.
Why is tomato puree often overlook by whole peeled or diced tomatoes?
Whole and diced offer a passable substitute for fresh, puree is cooked and strained, removing all seeds and illusions of freshness; puree is more suited for long-cooked dishes where thick even texture is more important than flavor.
This paste is backbone of many recipes.
Tomato paste provides deep, rich tomato flavor, even in non-tomato based recipes.
Why is tomato paste so effective?
It's naturally full of glutamates, which stimulate tastebuds like salt and sugar.