Crisis Intervention-Ch 1, Historical and Theoretical Overview of Crisis Intervention Flashcards Preview

Crisis Intervention > Crisis Intervention-Ch 1, Historical and Theoretical Overview of Crisis Intervention > Flashcards

Flashcards in Crisis Intervention-Ch 1, Historical and Theoretical Overview of Crisis Intervention Deck (56)
Loading flashcards...

Morrice term, psychodynamic awareness

ability to recognize, understand, and make appropriate responses to emotional stress


Crisis intervention has its origins in efforts to

prevent suicide....Early suicide prevention programs began as part of the religious ministries of their founders


1906 the National Save-A-Life League was founded by the Reverend

Harry M Warren in New York City...Salvation Army of London began its Anti-suicide Bureau in same year


1953, Reverend Chad Varah began the Samaritans suicide prevention program in England, relying almost exclusively on

volunteers and lay counselors..Samaritans were one of the first to offer a round the clock telephone service


After WW11, Veterans Administration provided funding for training mental health professionals and providing mental health services to thousands veterans.



1946 Congress passed the

National Mental Health Act-provided financing mental health research and training program


1950 Congress called for a thorough study of mental health problems. As a result, who studied the problems and needs related to community mental health and reported their finding to Congress

Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health


In response to Joint Commission study, President Kennedy helped provide for the passage of the __

Community Mental Health Center Act of 1963. The result of this Act and Public Law 90740, individual states received sizable grants with which to begin construction of public mental health centers


Norman Farberow and Edwin Shneidman, 1961, recieved a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health in 1958 that allowed them to open the

Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center. Their psychological autopsy of Marilyn Monroe's suicide in 1962 helped fuel the demand for better suicide prevention services.


LASPC developed the model for

suicide prevention that was the basis for programs throughout the US


private crisis intervention agencies with hotline services include

Aquarius House in Muncie, Indiana
Synergy in Carbondale, Illinois
both operated late 1960's and early 1970


one of the founders of the medical profession, defined a crisis as a sudden state that gravely endangers life was



Research on crisis intervention did not gain much momentum until 1930s and 1940s. Much of credit for this early research is credited to behavior theorists such as

Quierdo, Lindemann, Erickson and Caplan


Quierdo began an emergency first aid service during his work in Amsterdam in 1930s. His crisis intervention work involved

screening admissions to hopitals and providing support to police.


Lindemann's professional interest focused on the prevention of mental disturbances and management of mental health. What led to Lindemann to conduct a study that contributed to crisis theory

1943 fire in Coconut Grove in Boston, Mass. 500 people died. Study centered on the bereavement reaction of the family and close friends of the 500 that died.


Lindemanns study helped confirm specific crises produce specific patterns of behavior which can be classified as stages or phases of crisis. he refer to these as

grief work


Lindemann/s stage one is

shock and disbelief- survivors might deny the death of loved ones


Lindemann's stage two is

developing awareness- survivors identify with the deceased and become aware of their plight


Lindemann's stage three is

resolving the loss- survivors attempt to reorganize their lives and their own personalities without the deceased


Erickson's research helped provide the basis for individual crises into two major types:



crises as those occur during the transitional periods of a persons life.

maturational-developmental- ex:crisis in adolescence, young people feel the need to find and confirm their identity. Physical maturation, dating, peer pressure, other developmental crisis is marriage, pregnancy, retirement, mid-life crisis


crises involve those periods of psychological and behavioral upsets that are precipitated by life hazards.

accidental-situational crisis-rape, physical abuse, severe physical illnesses, divorce, death of love one


Caplan's work is one of the foundation of modern crisis intervention and his research during 1950s and 1960s helped provide the crisis intervention movement. He devoted his efforts toward

detailed definitions and descriptions of crisis.


Caplan noted that crisis victims attempt to maintain ____ or _____- a balance of their needs and instincts with demands of the outside environment.

equilibrium- state of emotional balance or calmness
homeostasis-relatively stable state of equilibrium


Caplan also addressed the concept of crisis intervention in the context of

helping crisis victims avoid long-term and severly debilitating mental illness


Caplan identified three levels of mental illness prevention measures:

1. primary prevention-efforts to reduce the number of new mental disorders thru environmental modification and improvement of individual coping mechanisms.
2. secondary prevention- reducing the duration and frequency of individual mental disorders. Detected early for increased probability of successful interv.
3. tertiary prevention-deals with past suffers of acute mental disorders. Development of occupational talents and improvement in social skills


What is a crisis?

crisis occurs when unusual stress brought on by unexpected and disruptive events render an individual either physically or emotionally disabled


Examples of critical events. Any of these events may provoke a crisis.

accidents, burglary, rape, natural disasters, assault, death of loved one, fired from job, failing college


What is important in each one of these critical events is that

crisis is in the eye of the beholder


Crisis intervention is

the timely and effective involvement in people's lives when the stress is too great for them to manage through their usual coping mechanisms.