Flashcards in Crisis Intervention-Ch 1, Historical and Theoretical Overview of Crisis Intervention Deck (56)
Morrice term, psychodynamic awareness
ability to recognize, understand, and make appropriate responses to emotional stress
Crisis intervention has its origins in efforts to
prevent suicide....Early suicide prevention programs began as part of the religious ministries of their founders
1906 the National Save-A-Life League was founded by the Reverend
Harry M Warren in New York City...Salvation Army of London began its Anti-suicide Bureau in same year
1953, Reverend Chad Varah began the Samaritans suicide prevention program in England, relying almost exclusively on
volunteers and lay counselors..Samaritans were one of the first to offer a round the clock telephone service
After WW11, Veterans Administration provided funding for training mental health professionals and providing mental health services to thousands veterans.
1946 Congress passed the
National Mental Health Act-provided financing mental health research and training program
1950 Congress called for a thorough study of mental health problems. As a result, who studied the problems and needs related to community mental health and reported their finding to Congress
Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health
In response to Joint Commission study, President Kennedy helped provide for the passage of the __
Community Mental Health Center Act of 1963. The result of this Act and Public Law 90740, individual states received sizable grants with which to begin construction of public mental health centers
Norman Farberow and Edwin Shneidman, 1961, recieved a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health in 1958 that allowed them to open the
Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center. Their psychological autopsy of Marilyn Monroe's suicide in 1962 helped fuel the demand for better suicide prevention services.
LASPC developed the model for
suicide prevention that was the basis for programs throughout the US
private crisis intervention agencies with hotline services include
Aquarius House in Muncie, Indiana
Synergy in Carbondale, Illinois
both operated late 1960's and early 1970
one of the founders of the medical profession, defined a crisis as a sudden state that gravely endangers life was
Research on crisis intervention did not gain much momentum until 1930s and 1940s. Much of credit for this early research is credited to behavior theorists such as
Quierdo, Lindemann, Erickson and Caplan
Quierdo began an emergency first aid service during his work in Amsterdam in 1930s. His crisis intervention work involved
screening admissions to hopitals and providing support to police.
Lindemann's professional interest focused on the prevention of mental disturbances and management of mental health. What led to Lindemann to conduct a study that contributed to crisis theory
1943 fire in Coconut Grove in Boston, Mass. 500 people died. Study centered on the bereavement reaction of the family and close friends of the 500 that died.
Lindemanns study helped confirm specific crises produce specific patterns of behavior which can be classified as stages or phases of crisis. he refer to these as
Lindemann/s stage one is
shock and disbelief- survivors might deny the death of loved ones
Lindemann's stage two is
developing awareness- survivors identify with the deceased and become aware of their plight
Lindemann's stage three is
resolving the loss- survivors attempt to reorganize their lives and their own personalities without the deceased
Erickson's research helped provide the basis for individual crises into two major types:
crises as those occur during the transitional periods of a persons life.
maturational-developmental- ex:crisis in adolescence, young people feel the need to find and confirm their identity. Physical maturation, dating, peer pressure, other developmental crisis is marriage, pregnancy, retirement, mid-life crisis
crises involve those periods of psychological and behavioral upsets that are precipitated by life hazards.
accidental-situational crisis-rape, physical abuse, severe physical illnesses, divorce, death of love one
Caplan's work is one of the foundation of modern crisis intervention and his research during 1950s and 1960s helped provide the crisis intervention movement. He devoted his efforts toward
detailed definitions and descriptions of crisis.
Caplan noted that crisis victims attempt to maintain ____ or _____- a balance of their needs and instincts with demands of the outside environment.
equilibrium- state of emotional balance or calmness
homeostasis-relatively stable state of equilibrium
Caplan also addressed the concept of crisis intervention in the context of
helping crisis victims avoid long-term and severly debilitating mental illness
Caplan identified three levels of mental illness prevention measures:
1. primary prevention-efforts to reduce the number of new mental disorders thru environmental modification and improvement of individual coping mechanisms.
2. secondary prevention- reducing the duration and frequency of individual mental disorders. Detected early for increased probability of successful interv.
3. tertiary prevention-deals with past suffers of acute mental disorders. Development of occupational talents and improvement in social skills
What is a crisis?
crisis occurs when unusual stress brought on by unexpected and disruptive events render an individual either physically or emotionally disabled
Examples of critical events. Any of these events may provoke a crisis.
accidents, burglary, rape, natural disasters, assault, death of loved one, fired from job, failing college
What is important in each one of these critical events is that
crisis is in the eye of the beholder