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Flashcards in Crisis Intervention-Ch 12, Stress and Burnout Deck (59)
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1

STRESS AND BURNOUT:
who quoted "people are not disturbed by things, but by the views they take of them"

Epictetus

2

STRESS AND BURNOUT:
According to _______ , Stress is the body's nonspecific response to any demand made on it, pleasant or unpleasant.

Han Selye, a Canadian physiologist

3

STRESS AND BURNOUT:
Observation of people who experience stress reveal that individuals experience the same _____ or ______ reaction regardless of the stressor. examples of such stressors are ___,___ and ___

physiological or psychological

fear, anxiety or elation

4

STRESS AND BURNOUT:
How one perceives an event helps determine how one will react. As this implies, stress involves a _____ _____ between the individual and his environment.

dynamic mismatch

5

STRESS AND BURNOUT:
Stress can be beneficial. If individuals learn to ____ stress, to _____ it and to make it ____ for them, then stress can provide the needed stimulation to perform a job effectively.

control stress, direct it, work for them

6

STRESS AND BURNOUT:
When a person is confronted with intense and chronic stress that does not seem amenable to active solutions, the result can be _____

Burnout

7

STRESS AND BURNOUT:
____ is a method of coping which emphasizes withdrawal, detachment, avoidance, lowering of goals, and blaming others.

Burnout

8

STRESS AND BURNOUT:
_____ is multifaceted. What are some factors that determine each individual's ability to handle stress.

Stress
Factors:
personality type
illness
accidents
anxiety
alcohol-drug use

9

STRESS AND BURNOUT:
A _____ is an event that produces stress, such as noise or a family argument.

stressor

10

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESS:
Cox, Herbert and Selye offer a description of the psycho-physiological reaction to stress. Following is a summary of their observations:

*Perceived stressors invoke the "fight or flight response".
*Heartbeat quickens, while adrenal glands pump more hormones.
*Adrenalin is released electrifies the system for quick action.
*Circulation is speeded up, arteries and veins constrict.
*Lungs pump more air and blood pressure increases
*Breathing becomes short and rapid
*Liver releases stored up sugar which is forwarded to brain and muscles to mobilize energy.
*Muscle functioning improves
*Blood-clotting mechanisms are accelerated while red blood cells flow into arteries to help body absorb more oxygen and cast off carbon dioxide
*Pupils dilate to improve vision, hearing becomes keener.
*Hands become colder.
*Intestines shut down so energy can be directed to the stressor.

11

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESS
Most of the stressors confronted by modern humans are _____ rather than _____

mental rather than physical.

12

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESS
Repeated exposure to acute stress can lead to _____ resistance to stress, impaired _____ and ____ thought processes, _____ work performance, _____ for taking increased risks and other unsafe behaviors.

decreased, cognitive and emotional, diminished, potential

13

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESS
Repeated exposure to acute stress can culminate in severe emotional reactions, such as _______; and physical reactions such as ;

anxiety, anger and depression;

nausea,ulcers, sleep disturbances, high blood pressure, reduced appetite.

14

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESS
Physiological model of stress seems to apply more often to ____.

males

15

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESS
Taylor describe female responses to stress as

tend and befriend- this response includes nurturing offspring under stressful circumstances, protecting them from harm and befriending- creating and joining social groups to exchange resources and provide protection.

16

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESS
These female responses are based on _______ processes that are specific to females across species, especially in situations of acute stress.

biological

17

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
Criminal justice and social service workers are vulnerable to stress and frustration caused by ______ about whether their work is valuable.

uncertainty

18

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
Edelwich argues that social service workers begin with unrealistically high expectations about their ability to help persons and the recognition that they will receive. The resulting disillusionment often leads to ____,____ and ____

stagnation, frustration and apathy

19

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
Maslach and Jackson characterize burnout as involving ______, _______ and lack of _______

emotional exhaustion
depersonalization
lack of personal accomplishment

20

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
Stead describes these feelings as follows:
_____ is the cumulative effect of time and stress that removes the worker from the people he is attempting to serve.
_____is a situation in which the exhausted practitioner develops resentful or negative attitude toward clients.
_______ results when the worker turns inward because of the belief that his efforts are futile and task is hopeless

Exhaustion
Depersonalization
Lack of personal accomplishment

21

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
One source of burnout among social service and criminal justice workers is the stress of constantly dealing with _____ in crisis.

clients

22

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
To deal with stress, workers distance themselves from their clients, avoid personal involvement and treat them as cases rather than individuals, intellectualizing their problems or tightly adhering to agency rules and regulations. The more often workers intervene in crises, the less ____ they become

effective

23

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
________ are situations which interfere with normal coping skills.

critical incidents.- injury to co-worker, suicide of co-worker or client, death of co-worker in line of duty, multiple casualties at accident site

24

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
Critical incidents provoke _____

crises

25

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
Stress in Criminal Justice Occupations:
Stressors are classified using categories developled by Ellison and Genz to decribe police stress:

1. stressors external to police organization- large caseloads, external controls by courts, legislation, Conflicting demands by clients and public
Racial and ethnic tension
Lack of occupational prestige
2. stressors inherent in police role-
Danger, social isolation, working with undesirable elements, periods of inactivity followed by periods of crisis, lack of feedback about successful case
Poor working environments
3. stressors in organizational structure and supervisory style-- high employee turnover, frequent shift changes, inadequate career development, few rewards for performing well, lack of input into agency policies, arbitrary rules and regs, militaristic organizational structure, lack of control over working conditions, POLITICS
4. stressors resulting from individual personalities

26

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
After extensive interviews and focus groups sessions with police officers, Toch concluded that the most severe stressor in the departments he worked with was ______

politics

27

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND BURNOUT:
Perhaps the most insidious source of stress in criminal justice and other emergency service agencies is

failure to acknowledge stress as a problem

28

RESPONDING TO STRESS:
It is neither the stressful event nor the experience of stress itself that causes harm. Instead, the damage is caused by _____________, such as using alcohol, isolating, binge eating, or taking it out on other persons.

maladaptive coping strategies.

29

COPING STRATEGIES:
Anshel has proposed a conceptual model to describe how police officers respond to stressful events.

Approach-coping strategies
Avoidance coping

30

COPING STRATEGIES:
Approach-coping strategies:
This strategy is well suited to situation in which the person has some control over the sources of stress

*learning to control, understand, and respond resourcefully to stressful events. Responses can be behavioral, such as obtaining information, seeking social support, using methods of communication.
*Physical confrontation, attending church, seeking medical aid, making an arrest.
*Response can be cognitive- involving thoughts intended to empower and make one more resourceful. Psyching up, self-assessing, admitting error