Crisis Intervention-Ch 5, Victims of Crime Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Crisis Intervention-Ch 5, Victims of Crime Deck (35)
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who quoted " A victim of a criminal can also find he is a victim of the criminal justice system"

Donald E Santarelli, Administrator Law Enforcement Asst Administration


Random sampling or its mathematical equivalents, which are generically referred to as _____

probability samples


the main source of data on criminal victimization is the

National Crime Victimization Survey.- one of the largest sample surveys in the world.


the FBI compiles data from federal, state and local police agencies on offenses "known to the police" and arrests, and uses this data for estimating a number of different crime rates.

The Uniform Crime Reports


Data published in an annual report which is somewhat misleadingly entitled

Crime in the United States.- detailed data are collected for homicide, more specifically, for murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, which offenses are not included in the NCVS.


Patterns of victimization

*Accidents and suicide result more deaths than homicide.
*risk of death from heart disease is 58 times greater than death from homicide


Homicide is a leading cause of death from young

American males


NCVS data o General Patterns:
data for period of 1973-2001 reveal the following patterns of reported victimization

*highest rates are consistently reported for simple assault, which is least serious form of viol victimiz
*risks of victimization are greater for some persons that others. Black, under 25, Male or Hispanic,poor, never been married or resides in urban area are more likely to suffer victimization by violence or theft.
*young, african American males in urban area at highest risk of violent victimization, involving handgun .


UCR datat on homicides"
homicide is most serious form of victimization, bit is also the rarest. In 2000, estimated _____homicides were known to the police.

small in comparison to 25.9 million victimization of all types .
homicide in US was 5.5 per 100,000 persons
In 1991, rate was 9.8 per 100,000 so homicide rates have declined almost 44% in the last 11 yrs


Messner and Rosenfeld, the homicide rate for the US was the highest among _____ developed nations.



Persons in the 18 to 24 age group, males and African American s are at highest risk of homicide.

per 100,000 person
white 3.3 homicide victims
white males 12.6
black females 12.9
black males 102.8


Most victimizations are not reported to the police. NCVA victims reported about one third of property crimes and 44% of crimes of violence. ____ was the violent crime that was least likely to be reported



Many persons adopt a ____ ____ stance for a variety of ideological and psychological reasons

Karmen argues that victim-blaming strategies appeal to our wish to lived in a just world. It is easier to believe that victims deserve to be victimized, that they asked for it or had it coming.


Painful experience that crime victims sometimes encounter when they turn to criminal justice and social service agencies for help is referred to

secondary victimization


Tempting for criminal justice agents to judge the worth of crime victims. Temptations is heightened when the victim is

lower social status


The Psychological Impact of Victimization
what are two sorts of harm that first come to mind when one is assessing the damage caused by criminal victimization

Physical injury and financial loss


The Task Force on Victims of Crime and Violence concluded that victims need

psychological help- They assert that the necessity for corrective therapies may be reduced by constructive early intervention.


Psychological damage associated with criminal victimization has implications for the crime prevention role of criminal justice agencies.

being abused or neglected as a child increased the likelihood of arrest as a juvenile by 59%, as adult 28%, for violent crime 30%. Widom and Maxfield finding suggest that victimization causes crime.


Research on rape victims by Burgess and Holmstrom led them to beleive that victims experience an immediate, ____ and a longer-term _____ in dealing with aftermath of assault

acute stage, recovery phase


acute phase of reaction to criminal victimization can last for

days, weeks or even months


Young suggests that _____ is the typical response of persons to becoming a crime victim



acutely stressful event produce a _______ response, in which the body prepares to attack an assailant or flee.

fight or flight.


Victims exhibit anger directed at the assailant, but when assailant is absent or it is emotionally costly to direct anger toward that assailant, victims sometimes direct anger toward others. Anger is a manifestation of the fear that a criminal attack produces.



victims responses that interveners will encounter

fear and anxiety
self-blame and guilt


feeling of confusion and disassociation as well as some memory loss can accompany criminal victimization.



Long-term effects of victimization

Posttraumatic stress disorder


involves a traumatic event or stressor, which is life-threating, overwhelming and sudden and unexpected.



symptoms of PTSD

nightmares, jumpiness, insomnia, intrusive imagery, startle reaction, staying on guard, avoidance of reminders,


PTSD symptoms are initially present in as many as 95% of victims.

rape victims
between 35 and 64 percent of victims exhibit PTSD after one month
15 and 17 % of rape victims continued to exhibit symptoms after 15 yrs.


PTSD symptoms were found to be most prevalent for direct victims of rape and other sexual assaults, followed by victims of nonsexual assaults, robbery or burglary.