Flashcards in Crisis Intervention-Ch 10. Suicide Deck (89)
who quoted " Anguish of mind has driven thousands to suicide; anguish of body, none. This proves that the health of the mind is of far more consequence to our happiness, than the health of the body, although both are deserving of much more attention than either of them receive.
who explained that suicide is not an illness, rather suicide is "A human, psychological orientation toward life, not a biological, medical disease.
1989, Suicidologist Edwin Shneidman
Epidemiology of Suicide:(study of how disease spread)
1998, the year for which the most recent statistics are available, suicide was the 8th leading cause of mortality in US. 30,000 deaths (83 deaths per day)
*homicide accounted for less than 21,000 deaths.
*1999, suicide remained the 8th leading cause of death for all Americans.
High Risk populations:
1999, US Public Health Service identified 5 US population to be at high risk for suicide.
3. medically ill
4. specific population groups
5. persons with mental and substance abuse disor.
High Risk populations:
leading cause of death for 5 to 14 yrs olds.
Suicide, 6th leading cause of death
suicide is currently the third leading cause of death for
15-24 yr old
suicide is 4th leading cause of death for
25 to 44 yr olds
between ____ and ___, the reported rates of suicide among adolescents and young adults nearly tripled.
1952 and 1998
Currently, suicide is the second leading cause of death for
white adolescents and young adults 15 to 24 exceeded only by unintentional injury.
Risk factors for attempted suicide in youth are
2. alcohol or drug use disorder
3. aggressive or disruptive behaviors
1997, men accounted for 83% of suicides among persons aged ____ years and older.
highest suicide rates reported were for white men over 85 years of age, however, this was not the leading cause of death for this age group.
1980-1997, largest relative increases in suicide rates occurred among people
80 to 84 years of age
Americans 65 yrs or older account for 13% of US population, they accounted for 20% of all suicide deaths. (suicide among elderly are highest for those divorced or widowed.)
older adult suicide victims, when compared to younger suicide victims, are more likely to be more depressed and more socially isolated. thus they frequently use highly lethal methods
Native America and Alaskan Natives have long had higher suicide rates than general population.
during period from 1979-1992
*suicide for Native Americans were 1.5 times the rates for general population.
*males 15 to 24 accounted for 64% of all suicides by Native American.s
*Suicide rates are higher than the national average for some groups of Asian Americans. ex: suicide rate among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in California is similiar to that of total population.
*Hawaii, the rate is higher.
*African American males aged 15 to 19 had increased over 105%
in 1997, white males accounted for 72% of all suicides. Together, white males and white females accounted for more than 90% of all suicides in US
*females attempt suicide more than males
*Males are at least 4 times more likely to die from suicide.
*Males under age 25 are much more likely to commit suicide than their female counterparts.
*1996 gender ratio:
age 15 to 19 was 5:1
age 20 to 24 was 7:1
*gay and lesbian youths are two to three tiems more likely to commit suicide than other youth.
______ are the most common means of suicide among men and women, accounting for 59% of all suicide deaths.
other states on firearms
1996- 79% of all firearm suicides were commited by white men.
between 1980 to 1996, suicide among African Americans males aged 15 to 19 yrs more than doubled with firearms.
*Firearms were most common method of suicide by both males and females, age 65 and older, 78%
The Center for Disease Control examined suicide from 1990 to 1994 to determine whether regional variations in suicide rates are affected by differences in age, race, gender and to examine whether specific rates varied by region.
*154,444 suicides in US
*37% in south
25% in West
22% in Midwest
15% in Northwest.
CDC files from 1990-1994, three leading methods of suicide.
Region suicides. After adjusting for age, race, sex, rates remained highest in the
West, followed by the south, Midwest and Northeast. Firearms were the leading method in all regions.
Misclassified Deaths and Attempted Suicide:
Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Suicide
reported that annually, approx half a million people required emergency room treatment as a result of attempted suicide. 1999
National Institute of Mental Health reported
there are an estimated 8 to 25 att suicides to one completion while the US Public Health Service reported there are an estimated 16 att suicides for each completed suicide, with gender ratio of 2:1. Attempted suicide higher with women, youth and lower with men and elder.
strongest risk factors for attempted suicide in youth are
alcohol or drug use disorder
aggressive or disruptive behavior
those risk factors associated with att suicide in adults are depression, alcohol abuse, cocaine use and separation or divorce
Incidence of suicide pacts:
this professor believes that suicide pacts are most common in elderly couples, who often have been married to each other for many years, and cant imagine life w/o each other.
Dr David Shaffer, professor of Child psychiatry at Columbia Univ
Shaffer said suicide pacts are very unusual in young people. When they do occur, there is almost always some _______relationship between the partners.
typically, one partner is dominating over the other.
all members of the pact had signs of mental illness before their deaths.