Flashcards in Crisis Intervention-Ch 4, The Process of Crisis Intervention Deck (25)
who quoted " Great emergencies and crises show us how much greater our vital resources are than we had supposed."
William James, Pioneer of Modern Psychology
_____._____ and ____ communication are basic skills needed by all criminal justice professionals
Assessment, conflict management and effective
Mere formal knowledge or technical proficiency is not sufficient. The qualities of ___, ____, ____ and ____ described in Chapter 1 must permeate the application of the technique described.
poise, empathy, warmth and genuineness
The goal of crisis intervention is to assist clients to return to precrisis levels of functioning. Psychological first aid involves reestablishing immediate coping. The crisis intervention steps of ____, ____, ____, ________ and ____ will assist in achieving these goals.
Crisis ______ underlies the crisis intervention process. The intervener is engaged in gathering and evaluating information throughout the intervention.
Two additional considerations should inform the ongoing assessment process:
1. the level or severity of crisis
2. the stage of the crisis
Because the crisis is a matter of individual perception, the existence and severity of crisis cannot be determined by some objective criteria, but must be seen thru the eyes of the person in crisis.
Crisis is the eye of the beholder
this continuum attempts to link critical events to crisis reactions and longer term consequences.
The following levels of stress-crisis continuum from least severe to most severe.
1. somatic distress- physical symptoms such as; headaches, generalized pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, sexual dysfunction, menstrual pain, chronic fatigue. Encountered in clinical setting than field. Can enhance of more severe crises
2. transitional stress crisis- arise from expected common events; infertility, premature birth, hyperactivity, childhood illness, school problems, unemployment, can also enhance the risk of more severe crises
3. traumatic stress crisis- externally imposed stressors such as; victimization, natural disaster, auto accident, sudden death in family, This sort of acute crisis is often encountered by on-site interventers.
4. Family crisis- chronic violence or neglect by family, child abuse, parental abductions, adolescent runaways, battering, rape, domestic homicide. Repeat calls to same address is a simple indicator of the presence of a family crisis.
5.Serious Mental Illness-
6. Psychiatric emergencies- involves high risk of lethality, harm to self or others. Drug overdose, hostage-taking, suicide attempts, severe criminal victimization, loss of love one to homicide. The safety of intervener, person in crisis and others are of primary concern.
Hill and Caplan have maintained that the Crisis experience has distinct phases or stages. These stages phase modes are an integral component of crisis intervention theory and practice
Hill- states that a person in crisis initially experiences a numbness or a hard blow. Individual and family network is forced to face the reality of situation, followed by a downward slum in behavior
Hill's phase or stage
1. depression, followed by
2. disorganizaiton- if intervention is successfu, crisis state will subside and survivor can return to previous levels of coping. if failed, crisis remains and depression-disorganization will surface again.
Emergency coping measures might be sought; crisis hotline or face to face counseling.
With emergency coping measures thru crisis hotline or face to face counseling, the individual can reach a level of ____ _____
Caplan identified 4 major phases or stages of a crisis.
1. persons in crisis are confronted by a precipitating event which they perceive as threatening.
2. a further rise in tension and a sense of disorganization is experienced by the victim.
3. the tension mounts as individuals attempt more novel methods of coping.
4. person in crisis incurs major personality disorganization which can result in mental illness or death.
Since client is not in full control at time of crisis, the intervener must assume control and provide direction to the victim. Byers states, the intervener is attempting to establish "rationality of thought and stability of affect." The goal is not simply to take and keep control, but to restore the client to _____
*In general, the less direction the interventer provides, the better.
*Thru the collaborative efforts of intervener and client, the nature of crisis is identified.
*self-assessment is an essential part of control process.
*interveners should allow clients adequate opportunity to express their emotions.
*When effecting control, interveners must insure that the person in crisis feels involved in the decision making process
who quoted " The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them."
This step involves examining possible solutions to the problem identified during the control stage. Gentry has identified 6 common behaviors exhibited by those in crisis.
1. people in crisis experience disorganization in their thinking
2. client tends to become very involved in insignificant or unimportant activities
3. upset over loss of control, either become hostile toward intervener or distance themselves
4. impulsive, responding immediately to crisis without considering consequences
5. natural response to crisis is to develop a dependence on crisis worker
6. one's sense of personal identity is impaired.
DePanfilis and Salus identified three core qualities essential in developing a positive relationship between an intervener and person in crisis.
*concreteness-communicate thought and ideas clearly and specifically
*competence-carry out one's professional role and implementing knowledge
*objectivity- ability to see different points of view
_____ and _____ are the first steps in refocusing and strengthening the crisis victims problem-solving skills.
Assessment and intervention
A successful intervention plan is one that is _____,_____,_____,_____and ____ in cooperation with the person in crisis.
practical, immediate, flexible, well organized and created
The crisis intervention process.
referral and disposition
psychological (traige) assessment
assessment of crisis level/stage
Expression of emotions
involvement of client in decision making
use of control techniques
identifying crisis behaviors
concreteness, competence, objectivity
collaborative problem solving
in Progress Assessment
pause and reflect