Crisis Intervention-Ch 11, Crisis Intervention in School Settings Flashcards Preview

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who quoted "There are two types of school administrators: those who have faced a crisis and those who are about to.

Ronald Stephens


One might say that our nations schools are a ____ of American society since compulsory attendance laws mandate that every child must be schooled thru age 16.

microcosm- Little world


Unfortunately, as a microcosm, todays schools and classrooms contain elements, both positive and negative, of American society.



____ is generally used to describe the age span from 10 to 18; its is a transition period between childhood and adulthood, between puberty and maturity.



Victimization at School:
National School Safety Center defined a school-associated violent death as

any homicide, suicide or weapon-related violent death in which the fatal injury occurred:


Since 1991-1993 school year, there have been ___ reported fatalities identified as school-associated violent deaths.



during 2000-2001 21 fatalities were reported. The most frequently reported reasons for the deaths included:

interpersonal dispute 25%
suicide 18%
gang-related 12%
Major cause of death inclued:
*shooting 75%
*stabbing/slashing 14%
*beating/kicking 5%
Males were the victims more frequently 77% to 23
high school students more frequently 67%
junior high 16%
elementary 1%


Non-fatal Victimization:
In 1997-1998, students ages 12 thru 18 were victims of more than ______ crimes at school.

2.7 million
*10% of these crimes were serious;rape,robbery, agg assault, sexual assault
*12 thru 18 yr old students living in urban, suburban and rural locales were equally vulnerable to serious violent crime and theft


Younger student were more likely than older students to be victims of crime at school, to be threatened or injured with a weapon on school property and to be bullied.



In 1997-1998 ____ percent of students reported carrying a weapon on school property

17% street gangs at school
26% had used marijuana


Teacher Victimization:
Over a 5 year period from 1994 thru 1997-1998 teachers were victims of _____ nonfatal crimes at school, including ____ thefts and ____ violent crimes.

1,087,000 thefts
668,000 violent crimes


____ teachers were more likely to be victims of violent crimes than ____

male,, female


Characteristics of Violent Children:
Violence by school-aged youth can be attributed to a number of factors:

exposure and participation in societal violence
family violence
media violence
decline in family structure
access to guns and other lethal weapons
Other cited causes:
substance abuse, poverty, poor coping skills
lack of moral/ethical education.
Pathological causes: antisocial, personality disorder, conduct disorder,


Targeted Violence Offenders:
Targeted violence in school, as defined by Vossekuil is

any incident of violence where a known attacker selects a particular target prior to his violent attack. Target may be a person or building itself.


Targeted Violence Offenders:
1992 National School Safety Center has identified behaviors that could indicate a youth's potential for harming himself or others. Of these tragic incidents, a troubled youth has demonstrated or talked to others about problems with

feeling of isolation
depression and frustration


What group focused on incidents of 37 school shootings, involving 41 shooters, who were current or recent students at the school and where the attackers chose the school for a particular purpose.

US Secret Service Safe School Initiative


Early Warning Signs:
Dwyer, Osher, and Hoffman state that it is easier to recognize behaviors that suggest a child is troubled than to predict that the child behavior will lead to violence.



Although no single behavior or set of warning signs are some accurately predict whether or not a child will be violent, there are some indicators:

1. social withdrawal
2. excessive feelings of isolation and being alone
3. excessive feelings of rejection
4. being a victim of violence
5. feelings of being picked on
6. frequent feelings of being rejected etc


Imminent Warning Signs:
Siasoco defined imminent warning signs as indicators that a youth is very close to behaving in a way that is potentially dangerous to himself or others

Evident to many people including the childs family and usually are a sequence of overt, serious, hostile behaviors or threats directed at peers, school staff, others.
Imminent warning signs are:
*serious physical fighting with students or family members
*severe destruction of property
*severe rage for minor things
*detailed threats of lethal violence
*poss or use of firearms or other weapons
*self-injurious behaviors or threats of suicide


Patterns of Behavior:
Perhaps more important than actual signs of troubled youth, both early and imminent, is the _____ of _____

pattern of behavior


Patterns of Behavior:
Sprague and Walker concluded that well developed anisocial behavior patterns ______ and high levels of aggression evidenced early in childs life are among the best predictors of delinquent and violent behavior

noncomliance, bullying, intimidation, sexual harassment


Patterns of Behavior:
The frequency, intensity, duration and versatility of the antisocial behavior also leads school personnel to impending danger for the student, peers, staff and other



Interpreting the Signs:
Early and imminent warning signs should alert school administrators, teachers and staff to address needs of troubled students thru meetings with parents, counselors, mentoring services and referral to health/social services.



Good rule of thumb is to assume that warning signs, particularly multiple warning signs, indicate a need for further analysis to determine an appropriate intervention



Several principles to ensure that early warning signs are not misinterpreted.

1. do no harm
2. understand violence and aggression w/in context
3. view warning signs w/in a developmental context
4. understand that children typically exhibit multiple warning signs.


Dwyer, Osher, and Warger concur that a referral process is necessary and identified seven principles to be followed:

1. simplify request for urgent assistance
2. give scheduling preference to urgent referrals
3. encourage informal consultations
4. inform and listen to parents when warning signs are observed
5. make interventions available as soon as possible
6. maintain confidentiality, parents right to privacy
7. circumvent the referral process in imminent warning signs


Schools tend to spend more time engaged in _____intervention than in primary intervention.



A ________ is any occasion when a student's behavior requires immediate attention to protect the physical and or psychological safety of that student or other

crisis in the school


In his 1994 article, Poland identified three levels of crisis intervention applicable to crises in our nations schools.

1. primary intervention/prevention programs (conflict resolution, safety programs, suicide prevention,crisis teams) all designed to prevent problems from occuring
2. Secondary intervention - steps taken in immediate aftermath of crisis to minimize the effects of the crisis and keep it from escalating.
(evacuating students, leading classroom discussions on death and loss)
3. Tertiary intervention- involves providing long-term, follow up assistance to victims of severe crisis.


Pitcher and Poland recommend that prevention programs address the three leading causes of death for children:

accidents, homicide, suicide