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Paper 2 - Computer Science > Databases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Databases Deck (42)
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1

What is a data model?

An abstract model of which things to store and what information about them should be recorded.

2

What is an Entity?

An object, event, person or thing about which data is to be stored

3

What is an attribute?

Attributes are characteristics or other information about entities

4

How are databases formed?

They are formed of tables which are used to store multiple entities

5

What is the notation for an entity description?

Entity1 (Attribute1, Attribute2 ....)
-The primary key is always underlined

Example: Patient (Title, Firstname, Surname, Address, Email)

6

What is an entity identifier?

-An attribute given to each entity which is unique within that table.
-Also known as the primary key.

7

What is a requirement of primary keys (entity identifiers)?

They must be unique

8

What are the three types of relationships entities can have with each other?

One-to-one
One-to-many
Many-to-many

9

What is an Entity relationship diagram?

They graphically represent the relationships between tables/entities in a database

10

What does it mean when entities have a link between them in an Entity relationship diagram?

That the two entities are related in some way,

11

What 2 things show a relationship in an Entity relationship diagram?

- Both the degree and the name of the relationship need to be specified
- For example: Head teacher -------------------- School
The degree: One-to-one
The name: In charge of

12

What type of key is formed of multiple attributes, combined to form the primary key?

A composite key

13

What is a composite primary key?

A key formed of multiple attributes, combined to form the primary key
(also known as just a composite key)

14

What is a primary key?

an attribute that uniquely identifies every entity in a database

15

What is a foreign key?

-An attribute that is a primary key in another table
-The attribute exists in both tables

16

How is the primary key and foreign represented in an entity description?

-The primary key has an asterisk next to it
For example: PatientID *
-The foreign key is in italics

17

When is a link table used?

-It's used to represent many-to-many relationships
-It creates a third table (the linking table) as many to many relationships are impossible to represent on a computer

18

What is a relational database?

A database that is formed of multiple tables that are linked together by common attributes

19

How is a record with a primary key quickly located?

An index of the primary key and is automatically maintained by the database software, it gives the position of every record according to its primary key

20

What is Normalisation?

The process used to make the design of a database the most efficient without compromising the integrity of the data

21

What are the advantages of normalising a database

- It allows for faster searching and sorting and saves storage space as it creates smaller tables
- They are easier to maintain.
- Data consistency is improved, reducing the number of anomalies that occur.
- Data integrity is maintained as there is no unnecessary duplication of data.

22

When is a database in first normal form?

If the database contains no repeating attribute/group of attributes

23

What does atomic mean?

It means that no single column contains more than one value

24

When is a database in second normal form?

-It must satisfy first normal form
-Contains no partial key dependencies

25

What is a partial key dependency?

When attributes depend on only one part of the primary key (only happens when the primary key is a composite primary key)

26

When is a database in third normal form?

-It must satisfy second normal form
-It must have no non-key dependencies

27

What is a non-key dependency?

Where the value of an attribute is determined by the value of another attribute which is not part of the key

28

What does a client server database system provide?

It provides simultaneous access to a database for multiple clients

29

What is concurrent access?

It's a problem caused when multiple users attempt to access/update the same field in database at the same time

30

What problems can concurrent access lead to?

It can result in updates being lost if two users edit a record at the same time