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Paper 2 - Computer Science > Software and Hardware > Flashcards

Flashcards in Software and Hardware Deck (24)
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1

What is hardware, give some examples.

Hardware is the physical components that make up a computer system

2

What is software, give some examples.

Software is the programs or coded instructions that make a computer function

3

What are the 2 different types of software

System and Application software

4

What is System Software needed for?

System Software is needed to run the computer's hardware / Application software

5

What is Application Software needed for

Application Software is needed to help carry out user-related tasks.

6

What are the types of System Software?

Operating System
Libraries
Utility Programs
Programming Language translators

7

What are the types of Application Software?

General Purpose
Specialised Applications
Bespoke Applications

8

What are Library programs and what are they used for?

-Library programs are pre-written software that is stored in a compiled format.
-They are used to assist programmers in interacting with peripherals such as printers

9

What are advantages of using Library programs?

-Programmers don't have to rewrite huge bits of code.
-Library programs are often reliable and efficient pieces of code as they have been designed to be used widely

10

What are Utility programs?

Programs designed to help maintain/optimise the performance of a computer

11

What are examples of Utility programs?

Disk defragmentation
File compression
Firewall
File backup software
Antivirus software
Encryption of data before transmission

12

What does a disk defragmenter do?
Why is this helpful?

- It recognises the hard disk so that parts of the same file stored in different places are recombined.
- It makes reading a file quicker

13

Give an example of a General Purpose, Special purpose

- word processor, spreadsheet
- payroll system

14

Advantages of special purpose over bespoke software?

- It will be cheaper
- It will be ready to be installed immediately
- It is likely to be well-documented, well tested and debugged

15

What is an operating system?

-A set of programs that manages the operations of the computer
-It lies between application software and the computer hardware

16

Where is the operating system held?

- In permanent storage (like a hard disk)
- When a computer is turned on, the OS is copied from storage into RAM

17

What are the roles of the Operating System?

- It hides complexities of the Hardware from the user by creating a user interface
- It handles interrupts
It manages
- Memory
- Processor Scheduling
- Secondary Storage
- Input/Output devices

18

How is memory managed by the OS?

-OS controls the allocation and management of space
- It can also copy data to the hard disk if virtual memory is needed

19

What is virtual memory and when is it used?

-Virtual memory is when the hard disk is used as an extension of memory
-It's used when RAM isn't large enough to store all of the programs the user is running simultaneously

20

How is processor scheduling managed by the OS?

-The OS is allocates processor time to multiple applications running at the same time

21

What are the objectives for the scheduler?

- Maximise throughput
- Be fair to all users on a system
- Provide acceptable response time to all users
- Ensure hardware is kept as busy as possible

22

How is backing store managed by the OS?

The OS keeps a directory of where files are stored so they can be quickly accessed

23

How are peripherals managed by the OS?

- The OS communicates with the peripherals to check they are switched on and the correct peripheral to send the data to
- They also ensure peripherals are allocated to processes without causing conflicts.

24

How are interrputs managed by the OS?

- The OS detects the interrupt signal and displays an error message to the user if appropriate