Flashcards in Software and Hardware Deck (24)
What is hardware, give some examples.
Hardware is the physical components that make up a computer system
What is software, give some examples.
Software is the programs or coded instructions that make a computer function
What are the 2 different types of software
System and Application software
What is System Software needed for?
System Software is needed to run the computer's hardware / Application software
What is Application Software needed for
Application Software is needed to help carry out user-related tasks.
What are the types of System Software?
Programming Language translators
What are the types of Application Software?
What are Library programs and what are they used for?
-Library programs are pre-written software that is stored in a compiled format.
-They are used to assist programmers in interacting with peripherals such as printers
What are advantages of using Library programs?
-Programmers don't have to rewrite huge bits of code.
-Library programs are often reliable and efficient pieces of code as they have been designed to be used widely
What are Utility programs?
Programs designed to help maintain/optimise the performance of a computer
What are examples of Utility programs?
File backup software
Encryption of data before transmission
What does a disk defragmenter do?
Why is this helpful?
- It recognises the hard disk so that parts of the same file stored in different places are recombined.
- It makes reading a file quicker
Give an example of a General Purpose, Special purpose
- word processor, spreadsheet
- payroll system
Advantages of special purpose over bespoke software?
- It will be cheaper
- It will be ready to be installed immediately
- It is likely to be well-documented, well tested and debugged
What is an operating system?
-A set of programs that manages the operations of the computer
-It lies between application software and the computer hardware
Where is the operating system held?
- In permanent storage (like a hard disk)
- When a computer is turned on, the OS is copied from storage into RAM
What are the roles of the Operating System?
- It hides complexities of the Hardware from the user by creating a user interface
- It handles interrupts
- Processor Scheduling
- Secondary Storage
- Input/Output devices
How is memory managed by the OS?
-OS controls the allocation and management of space
- It can also copy data to the hard disk if virtual memory is needed
What is virtual memory and when is it used?
-Virtual memory is when the hard disk is used as an extension of memory
-It's used when RAM isn't large enough to store all of the programs the user is running simultaneously
How is processor scheduling managed by the OS?
-The OS is allocates processor time to multiple applications running at the same time
What are the objectives for the scheduler?
- Maximise throughput
- Be fair to all users on a system
- Provide acceptable response time to all users
- Ensure hardware is kept as busy as possible
How is backing store managed by the OS?
The OS keeps a directory of where files are stored so they can be quickly accessed
How are peripherals managed by the OS?
- The OS communicates with the peripherals to check they are switched on and the correct peripheral to send the data to
- They also ensure peripherals are allocated to processes without causing conflicts.