What policies have contributed to a DEA?
Equal Pay Act 1970
Sex Discrimination Act 1975
Why have social polices caused girls to do better in education?
Greater career opportunities
Encouraged to work hard + get qualifications
Will get paid the same, treated equally
BUT still £ gap, fewer opportunities (glass ceiling)
What is the pay gap between men and women?
Despite the policies put into place
Who found that there has been a change in the media representation of women?
Describe Mc Robbies study
Carried out data analysis 2ndary data, documents (magazines) 70s 'Jackie' + 90s 'Seventeen' Jackie - priorities love + boyfriends Seventeen - focused on having career + being independent
How has the change in the media representation of women contributed to DEA?
Media = agency of 2ndary socialisation
Capable of influencing n+v
Why are radical feminists still critical of the media representation of women?
Mags still focus on beauty + make-up as apposed to equality
However, although still about beauty, recently 1st ‘cover boy’ (USA) shows some mags are about equality
Who found that women’s ambitions + priorities in life have changed?
Describe Sue Sharpe’s study?
Unstructured interviews with school girls
In 70s + again in 90s
Found in 70s, girls ambitions = get married, have children
90s = careers + independence 1st
What are the 4 reasons why girls do better in education?
- Changes in W’s employment
- Changes in media
- Changes in ambitions/ priorities
- Changes to family
How have changes in the family led to girls doing better in education? (4)
- Increased divorce rate
- More SPFs
- More net-conventional families (Chester)
- Increase in cohabitation, decrease marriage + fertility rates
BUT these factors seem to effect mc girls more
How has a increase in divorce rate led to girls doing better in school?
Considered unwise to rely on a man for £
Need qualifications, support yourself
What are 3 the external factors which have led to boys not doing as well as girls in Ed?
- Primary socialisation
- Changes in family
How has the primary socialisation of boys widened the gender gap in DEA?
Usually mums who read to children not dads (reading = seen as female)
Typical hobbies don’t develop communication skills as opposed to girls ‘bedroom culture’ (McRobbie)
Boys lit skills not as high as girls hone start school
How has globalisation led to boy not doing as well as girls at school?
Decline in industries (steel/mining) abroad = cheaper
= mainly male jobs - ‘ID crisis’ (Mitos + Browne)
Can’t be breadwinner
Undermines motivation + self esteem
BUT mc jobs haven’t declined, only applies to wc boys?
How have changes in the family led to boys not doing as well in school than girls?
Increased divorce rate
Mums usually get custody
Fatherless families (Dennis + Erdos)
No same sex role model
Roughly how big is the gender gap (%) of DEA at GCSE?
2014 = widest since 2003
73.1% girls, 64.3% boys received 5 A*-Cs