What are the 6 key internal explanations girls doing better in Ed?
All of which occurred during the 1980s
- Equal opportunities policies
- More female role models in schools
- Introduction of coursework
- Teacher attention
- Challenging stereotypes in curriculum
- Marketisation, selection, league tables
Why does Boaler argue that equal opportunity policies has led to girls doing better in Ed?
Many barriers = removed
Schooling = more meritocratic
So girls, who generally work harder than boys, do better
Give 2 examples of equal opportunity policies?
How has this effected girls achievements in Ed?
- GIST/ WISE (encouraged girls to opt for more traditionally male subjects)
- National Curriculum (girls + boys study same core subjects)
How has the increase in female role models in schools led to girls achieving higher?
Female role models inspire girls - see well educated W in strong positions
More motivation to succeed
BUT may feminise Ed, act as barrier for boys
In 2012 what % of primary school teachers were female?
In 2012 what % of primary school head teachers were female?
BUT lower in secondary schools, 37% heads = female
What did Stephen + Gorard (2005) find?
Gender gap increased significantly in 1989
= same year that GCSEs + coursework = introduced
What did Mitsos + Browne age that girls do better in coursework? (4)
- Spend more time on it
- Take more care with presentation
- Better at meeting deadlines
- More organised (bringing materials to lesson)
Due to primary socialisation: encouraged to be neat, tidy, quiet + have better developed language skills
What did Becky Francis 2001 argue about attention given by teachers?
Give boys more attention BUT often -ve
Teachers have lower expectations of boys + discipline them more harshly than girls
Receiving +ve attention may encourage them to be better - SFP
What did Lobban conduct in primary schools?
Has this changed?
Content analysis of reading schemes
Found that females = nearly always presented in traditional domestic roles
Weiner 1995: since 80’s teachers have challenged sexism in the curriculum + sexist images have been removed form textbooks and other reading materials
How has marketisation cause girl to do bettering Ed?
Market forces have been introduced to Ed
Schools = keen to attract students who = most likely to succeed (improve league tables)
Boys = seen as ‘liability students’ - less likely to achieve 5 A*-C at GCSEs
Therefore girls = seen as better students and go to better schools
What are the 3 internal factors that cause boys to underachieve?
- Feminisation of Ed
- Lack of male role models in primary schools
- ‘Laddish’ subculture
Why does Tony Sewell argue that education has become feminised?
Schools no longer reward masculine traits (competitiveness. leadership)
Approve more of female e traits (attractiveness)
Boys would benefit from replacing coursework with exams (starting to happen) + ‘boy-friendly’ topic in curriculum
How has the feminisation of education caused boys to not do as well as girls?
Ed = better suited to girls
Means that boys = more likely to be told off + feel less engaged with lesson
Causes -ve attitude towards school
What % of primary school teachers are male?
Boys claim they behave better + work harder with male teachers
What % of secondary school leachers are female?
Boy claim they behave better + work harder with male teachers
How has a lack of male role models in primary school caused boys to not do as well as girls in Ed?
Without male role models, boys don’t have anything to aspire to
No encouragement to do well
Boys = more likely to misbehave with female teacher
Why does Debbie Epstein argue that wc boys don’t do as well as girls in Ed?
wc boys = bullied by peers if they appear to be ‘geeks’
‘Real boys don’t work’
Likely to be called ‘gay’ if seen to be interested in Ed
Finding = supported by separate studies e.g. Willis
Who disagrees with Debbie Epstein?
Found that for BOTH boys + girls in many schools = seen as uncool to work
Only effortless achievement is valued
Girls are also distracted from their schoolwork by ‘cool work’
e.g. pleasing friends
How has the ‘laddish’ subculture caused boys to not do as well as girls in Ed?
Boys = encouraged not to achieve by peers + if they do achieve = bullied
Raising Boys Achievement Project
Involved trialing range of teaching strategies to try help boys
e.g. single-sex teaching
Aim overcome feminisation of Ed
BUT may encourage ‘laddish’ subculture
Education Act 2011
Made significant changes to GCSEs + A-levels
Some may benefit boys more than girls
e.g reducing coursework, making Ed more fact-based
Roughly how big is the gender gap (%) of DEA at GCSE?
2014 = widest since 2003
73.1% girls, 64.3% boys received 5 A*-Cs
Has the National Curriculum actually helped reduced the effect of gendered subjects?
Most subjects = compulsory until age 16 due to NC
BUT where choice = possible (GCSE options + post 16 Ed) fairly traditional patterns remain
Boys opt for subjects like maths, physics + computing
Girls opt for subjects life drama, English
In vocational courses gender differences = even greater
e.g. 1% of students doing childcare = male
What are the 4 reasons for gender difference in subject choices?
- Gender role socialisation + gender domains (Francis argues that from an early age g+b = encouraged to play differently)
- Gendered subject images (however, less apparent in single-sex schools)
- Peer pressure
- Gendered career opportunities (e.g. female nurse, male builders - BUT may apply more to wc as these jobs are arguably more gendered)
What does Connell (1995) argue that schools play a significant part in reinforcing?
Means dominance of heterosexual masculine ID + the sub-ordination of female + gay IDs
= 6 pupil experiences that = said to construct + reinforce gender ID + dominance of masculinity
What are the 6 pupil experiences which are said to construct + reinforce gender ID + dominance of masculinity?
- Double standards
- Verbal abuse
- Male gaze (Mac an Ghalill)
- Male peer groups (use verbal abuse to reinforce masculinity)
- Female peer groups (wc girls gain popularity from female peers by emphasising their heterosexual, feminine ID)
- Teacher discipline
Who coined the idea of male gaze?
Mac an Ghalli
Idea that male pupils/ teachers control girls IDs by looking them up + down, as sexual objects
Gives power to masculinity + devalues femininity
What did Mac an Ghalli find that male teachers do and don’t allow boys to do?
Tell boys off for ‘behaving like girls’
Also ignore boys verbal abuse of girls