What are the 4 internal factors?
- Labelling + SPF
- Pupil subcultures + streaming
- Marketisation + selection policies
- Student’s class IDs
Process of attaching a meaning/ definition to individual/ group
Often based on stereotypes
When prediction (label) made about person/ group comes true Labels = accepted by group/ individual + act in way that matches label
Going against the prediction
Label = rejected, opposite comes true
What are the 3 sociologists that conducted studies on labelling?
- Rist (1970) ‘Tigers’
- Becker (1971) ‘Ideal pupil’
- Rosenthal + Jacobson (1968) SFP sputers
Describe Becker’s study
Study of labelling
Interviews, 60 Chicago HS teachers
Teachers judged pupils according to how closely fitted image of ‘ideal pupil’
Influencing factors: pupils work, conduct + appearance
mc = most ideal
wc = furthest away
Describe Rist’s study
Labelling p. schools (US kindergarten)
Teachers used info about children background + appearance
Placed them into separate groups + @ different tables
Teachers decided who = fast learners (Tigers)
Tended to be, mc (neat appearance) sat closest to teacher - gave encouragement
Others = ‘clowns’, seated furthest away (wc)
Given lower reading levels + fewer chances to show abilities
Who studied streaming?
Gillbron + Youdell (2001)
Describe Gillborn + Youdell’s study
Studied 2 LONDON 2ndary schools
Teachers used ‘ability’ to stream pupils
Teachers less likely to see wc + blacks to have ability
Pupils = more likely to be places in lower streams, entered into lower GCSEs
Denies them opp. to gain high grades
What are 2 problems with the labelling theory?
- Deterministic (ignores other factors, dep)
2. Marxists: ignore real cause of labelling, unequal capitalist S
Who talks about pupil subcultures?
Define pupil subcultures
Group of students with own unique culture (n+v, attitudes) different + separate to mainstream culture
Can be pro/ anti-school
What are the 2 stages in creating a subculture according to Lacey?
What is stage 1 in developing a subculture?
Means separating students into groups
Teachers categorise students according to perceived ability/ behaviour (streaming)
What is stage 2 in developing a subculture?
Moving to 1 of 2 opposite ‘poles’
Students at top become better behaved/ more ambitious (+ve labelling)
Low set students behaviour gets worse; surrounded by other students with little motivation
What are 3 characteristics of a pro-school subculture? (mc)
- Gain status + respect through academic success
- Culture matches culture of Ed system (valuing success)
- +ve labelling, SFP, achieve success
What are 3 characteristics of an anti-school subculture? (wc)
- Gain status be misbehaving (talking back)
- Actively reject culture of Ed, fight it
- -ve labelling, SFP, academic failure
3 criticisms of pupil subc. as an explanation for social class DEA
- Most people aren’t pre/anti school, but somewhere in between
- Most subc. = mixed ability
- Fuller study showed anti school BUT pro education subc.
When did Lacey write?
What type of subculture is likely to be formed in the top sets?
Pro-school subcultures (mc)
What types of subculture is likely to be formed in the bottom sets?
Anti-school subcultures (wc)
Who coined the term ‘habitus’?
Lifestyle, interests, expectations + views of a social group Formed as result of a groups class position + = learnt during socialisation Similar to cultural capital
What are 5 feature of the wc habitus?
- Present time orientation
- Immediate gratification
- Antischool subculture
What impact does a wc habitus have in education? (DEA)
Some students may reject Ed. success as they see it as having to adopt a mc habitus
What are 5 features of a mc habitus?
- Work hard to achieve
- Future time orientation
- Delayed gratification
- Pro school subculture
What impact does a mc habitus have in education? (DEA)
mc values/ habitus benefits the Ed system where as wc values can clash with Ed
Which classes habitus is valued by Ed. system?
Gives them symbolic capital where wc habitus = seen as tasteless + worthless
Archer called this ‘symbolic violence’
What does Archer write about?
Uses Bourdieu term habitus to understand the relationship between pupils’ wc IDs + underachievement
What causes ‘Nike identities’ according to Archer?
Symbolic violence placed against wc habitus
Some find other ways to achieve status
Create self-worth by rejecting mc values
Wear Nike branded wear, deemed as tasteless by mc
Plays role in rejection of higher education
What educational policy did Bartlett argue disadvantages the wc?
What are the 2 concepts used by Bartlett?
- Cream skim (having best pupils)
2. Silt Shift (remove pupils don’t want, keep good ones)
Why does Bartlett argue that marketisation disadvantages the wc?
Can ‘silt shift’ those perceived to be less able
Schools get better results
School becomes more popular (oversubscribed) - ‘silt shift’ + ‘cream skim’
Get better results
etc. cycle repeats
What educational policy has tries to combat Bartlett findings?
Schools get more £ for wc students
will this get rid of silt shift?
What do Gillbron + Youdell argue that marketisation has lead to?
Those going to fail/pass anyway = ignored
Teachers focus time on borderline students (C/D)
More students that achieve Cs, improves schools position in league tables
Called this, EDUCATIONAL TRIAGE